UNITED STATES 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 

Washington, D.C. 20549 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark One)

 

  REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

 

OR

 

  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

  SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    Date of event requiring this shell company report

 

Commission file number: 001-33911 

 

RENESOLA LTD 

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter) 

 

N/A 

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English) 

 

British Virgin Islands 

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) 

 

3rd Floor, 850 Canal St 

Stamford, CT 06902 

U.S.A 

(Address of principal executive offices) 

 

Ke Chen
Chief Financial Officer 

3rd Floor, 850 Canal St 

Stamford, CT 06902 

U.S.A 

Tel: +1(347) 577 9055 x115. 

Fax: +1 (347) 577-9985 

E-mail: ke.chen@renesolapower.com 

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person) 

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 

 

Title of each class   Trading Symbol(s)   Name of each exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each representing   SOL   New York Stock Exchange
10 shares, no par value per share        

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: 

 

None  

(Title of Class) 

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: 

 

None  

(Title of Class) 

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report. 

 

572,484,072 shares, no par value per share, as of December 31, 2020. 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒ 

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No ☒ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 

 

Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☒
    Emerging growth company ☐

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards † provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing: 

 

U.S. GAAP ☒  International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐ Other ☐ 

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. 

 

Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐ 

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in). Yes ☐ No ☒ 

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS) 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes ☐ No ☐

   

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

 

 

 

table of contents

 

    Page
INTRODUCTION 1
     
PART I   1
     
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS 1
     
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE 2
     
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION 2
     
ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY 40
     
ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 72
     
ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS 72
     
ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES 94
     
ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS 103
     
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION 104
     
ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING 105
     
ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 107
     
ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 118
     
ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES 119
     
PART II   120
     
ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES 120
     
ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS 121
     
ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 121
     
ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT 122
     
ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS 122
     
ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES 122
     
ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES 122
     
ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS 122
     
ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT 122
     
ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 123
     
ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE 123
     
PART III   123
     
ITEM 17 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 123
     
ITEM 18 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 123
     
ITEM 19. EXHIBITS 124

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Unless otherwise indicated and except where the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:

 

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our” or “ReneSola Power” refers to ReneSola Ltd, a British Virgin Islands company, its predecessor entities and its subsidiaries;

 

“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this annual report on Form 20-F only, Taiwan, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau;

 

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China; all references to “$,” “dollars” and “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States;

 

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each of which represents 10 shares, and “ADRs” refers to the American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;

 

“shares” refers to shares of ReneSola Ltd with no par value;

 

“DG projects” refers to distributed generation solar power projects, including ground-mounted distributed generation projects and rooftop distributed generation projects;

 

“FIT” refers to feed-in tariff(s), the government guaranteed and subsidized electricity sale price at which solar power projects can sell to the national power grids, which is set by the central government;

 

“ground-mounted projects” refers to solar power projects built on the ground, consisting of ground-mounted DG projects and utility-scale projects;

 

“ground-mounted DG projects” refers to small-scale ground-mounted projects with lower grid connection voltage grade and with a substantial portion of the electricity generated to be consumed within the substation area of the grid connection points;

 

“rooftop DG projects” refers to distributed generation solar power projects built on roof tops; and

 

“utility-scale projects” refers to ground-mounted projects that are not ground-mounted DG projects.

 

All discrepancies in any table between the amounts identified as total amounts and the sum of the amounts listed therein are due to rounding.

 

This annual report on Form 20-F includes our audited consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019and 2020 and our audited consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), changes in equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 , 2019, and 2020.

 

This annual report contains translations of certain Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars at the rate of RMB 6.5250 to $1.00, the noon buying rate in effect on December 31, 2020 as set forth in the H.10 Statistical Release of the Federal Reserve Board. We make no representation that the Renminbi or dollar amounts referred to in this annual report on Form 20-F could have been or could be converted into dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.” On April 19, 2021, the noon buying rate was RMB 6.5160 to $1.00.

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1.IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

Not applicable.

1

ITEM 2.OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3.KEY INFORMATION

 

A.       Selected Financial Data

 

Our Selected Consolidated Financial Data

 

In September 2017, we completed a non-cash restructuring to dispose of substantially all of the assets and liabilities related to our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer, solar cell and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business. These dispositions have been accounted for as discontinued operations.

 

The following table presents the selected consolidated financial information of our company. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 have been revised from our previously audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this annual report on Form 20-F to give effect to the discontinued operations presentation resulting from our non-cash restructuring in September 2017. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period.

 

On January 1, 2018, we adopted new revenue guidance ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting method under ASC Topic 605.

 

On January 1, 2019, we adopted new lease guidance ASC Topic 842, “Leases” using the modified retrospective approach at the beginning of the period of adoption through a cumulative-effect adjustment which, among other things, allowed the Company to not reassess prior conclusions related to contracts containing leases or lease classifications. Upon commencement of a lease, the Company recognizes a lease liability for the present value of the lease payments not yet paid, discounted using an interest rate that represents the Company ability to borrow on a collateralized basis over a period that approximates the lease term. The Company also recognizes a lease asset, which represents the Company right to control the use of the underlying property, plant and equipment, at an amount equal to the lease liability adjusted for prepayments and initial direct costs. The adoption did not have a material impact on our results of operations or cash flows.

 

On January 1, 2020, we adopted new credit losses guidance ASU Topic 326, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses” which amends previously issued guidance regarding the impairment of financial instruments by creating an impairment model that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. Upon the adoption of the guidance, the Company has identified the relevant risk characteristics of its customers and the related receivables, prepayments, deposits and other receivables which include size, type of the services or the products the Company provides, or a combination of these characteristics. Receivables with similar risk characteristics have been grouped into pools. For each pool, the Company considers the historical credit loss experience, current economic conditions, supportable forecasts of future economic conditions, and any recoveries in assessing the lifetime expected credit losses. Other key factors that influence the expected credit loss analysis include customer demographics, payment terms offered in the normal course of business to customers, and industry-specific factors that could impact the Company’s receivables.

2

   For the Year Ended December 31, 
   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020 
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data Continuing operations:                    
Net revenue  $80,504,734   $102,973,999   $96,906,335   $119,117,024   $73,502,883 
Income/(loss) from operations   2,348,663    6,555,610    15,531,888    (964,304)   6,780,197 
Income/(loss) from continuing operations, net of tax   94,482    3,199,831    5,096,480    (11,680,155)   2,155,987 
(Loss)/income from discontinued operations, net of tax(1)   (34,792,733)   31,257,707    -    -    - 
Net (loss)/income   (34,698,251)   34,457,538    5,096,480    (11,680,155)   2,155,987 
Less: Net income/(loss) attributed to noncontrolling interests   -    -    3,336,769    (2,848,932)   (622,668)
Net (loss)/income attributed to ReneSola Ltd   (34,698,251)   34,457,538    1,759,711    (8,831,223)   2,788,655 
Income/(loss) attributed to ReneSola Ltd per ADS from continuing operations                         
Basic   0.00    0.13    0.05    (0.22)   0.06 
Diluted   0.00    0.13    0.05    (0.22)   0.06 
(Loss)/income attributed to ReneSola Ltd per ADS from discontinued operations                         
Basic   (1.72)   1.27    -    -    - 
Diluted   (1.72)   1.27    -    -    - 
Weighted average number of ADS used in computing income/(loss) per ADS*:                         
Basic   20,222,977    24,689,929    38,075,293    40,595,551    49,166,354 
Diluted   20,240,390    24,690,529    38,075,293    40,595,551    49,788,422 

 

*Each ADS represents 10 ordinary shares.

 

(1)Discontinued operations relate to our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer, solar cell and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business, which were disposed of in the third quarter of 2017, the transaction of which was completed on September 29, 2017.

 

   As of December 31, 
   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020 
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data                         
Cash and cash equivalents  $3,964,896   $13,429,301   $6,750,178   $24,292,113   $40,593,094 
Total assets   1,088,405,688    335,698,792    377,712,342    319,944,193    336,941,949 
Total non-current liabilities   117,827,787    100,019,369    119,309,869    72,991,550    65,373,230 
Total liabilities   1,022,259,908    245,216,322    253,046,937    182,397,018    153,681,868 
Total shareholders’ equity   66,145,780    90,482,470    124,665,405    137,547,175    183,260,081 
Common share capital   -    -    -    -    - 
Number of common shares issued   202,478,702    381,027,002    381,027,002    481,027,002    582,258,622 

 

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

Not applicable.

3

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

Not applicable.

 

D.Risk Factors

 

Risks Related to Our Business

 

Developing and operating solar power projects exposes us to various operational risks and our result of operations may be subject to fluctuations.

 

In any given period, our revenue is affected by a limited number of solar power projects that are under development and sold to third parties, and therefore subject to significant fluctuations. In order to further evolve into an asset-light solar project developer with a global presence, we will continue to develop and sell solar power projects to take advantage of attractive market opportunities. As a result, for certain periods we may generate more of our revenues from the one-time sale of solar power projects.

 

Development of solar power projects can take many months or years to complete and may be delayed for reasons beyond our control. They often require us to make some up-front payments for, among other things, land/rooftop use rights and permitting in advance of commencing construction, and revenue from these projects may not be recognized for several additional months following contract signing. Any inability or significant delays in entering into sales contracts with customers after making such up-front payments could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Furthermore, we may become constrained in our ability to simultaneously fund our other investment in such projects.

 

Development of solar power projects also requires significant management attention to negotiate the terms of our engagement and monitor the progress of the projects which may divert management’s attention from other matters. Our revenue and liquidity may be adversely affected to the extent the market for solar power projects weakens or we are not able to successfully complete the customer acceptance testing due to technical difficulties, equipment failure, or adverse weather, and we are unable to sell our solar power projects at prices and on terms and timing that are acceptable to us.

 

We operate solar power projects and sell electricity to the local or national grid or other power purchasers such as commercial and industrial end users. As a result, we are subject to a variety of risks associated with intense market competition, changing regulations and policies, insufficient demand for solar power, technological advancements, failure of our power generation facilities and credit risks related to the power purchasers. If we cannot manage these risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

 

Solar project development is challenging and may ultimately not be successful and miscalculations in planning a project may negatively affect our engineering, procurement and construction, or EPC, prices, all of which could increase our costs, delay or cancel a project, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and profit margins.

 

The development of solar projects involves numerous risks and uncertainties and requires extensive research, planning and due diligence. We may be required to incur significant amounts of capital expenditure for land/rooftop use rights, interconnection rights, preliminary engineering, permits, legal and other expenses before we can determine whether a solar power project is economically, technologically or otherwise feasible. Success in developing a solar power project is contingent upon, among other things:

 

securing investment or development rights;

 

securing suitable project sites, necessary rights of way, satisfactory land/rooftop use or access rights in the appropriate locations with capacity on the transmission grid and related permits, including completing environmental assessments and implementing any required mitigation measures;

 

rezoning land, as necessary, to support a solar power project;

 

negotiating satisfactory EPC agreements;

4

negotiating and receiving required permits and approvals for project development from government authorities on schedule;

 

completing all required regulatory and administrative procedures needed to obtain permits and agreements;

 

procuring rights to interconnect the solar power project to the electric grid or to transmit energy;

 

paying interconnection and other deposits, some of which are non-refundable;

 

signing grid connection and dispatch agreements, power purchase agreements, or PPAs, or other arrangements that are commercially acceptable, including adequate for providing financing;

 

obtaining project financing, including debt financing and own equity contribution; and

 

negotiating favorable payment terms with suppliers;

 

completing construction on schedule in a satisfactory manner.

 

Successful completion of a particular solar project may be adversely affected by numerous factors, including without limitation:

 

unanticipated changes in project plans or defective or late execution;

 

difficulties in obtaining and maintaining governmental permits, licenses and approvals required by existing laws and regulations or additional regulatory requirements not previously anticipated;

 

potential challenges from local residents, environmental organizations, and others who may not support the project;

 

uncertainty in the timing of grid connection;

 

the inability to procure adequate financing with acceptable terms, especially for EPC;

 

unforeseeable engineering problems, construction or other unexpected delays and contractor performance shortfalls;

 

labor, equipment and materials supply delays, shortages or disruptions, or work stoppages;

 

adverse weather, environmental and geological conditions, force majeure and other events out of our control; and

 

cost overruns, due to any one or more of the foregoing factors.

 

Accordingly, some of the solar power projects in our pipeline may not be completed or even proceed to construction. If a number of solar power projects are not completed, we may not benefit from the feed-in-tariffs, or FITs, our solar power projects are otherwise entitled to, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

In addition, if we are unable to complete the development of a solar power project or we fail to meet any agreed upon system-level capacity or energy output guarantees or warranties or other contract terms, or our projects cause grid interference or other damage, we may be subject to significant damages, penalties and other obligations relating to the project, including obligations to repair, replace or supplement materials for the project.

 

Occasionally, we may enter into fixed-price EPC agreements in which we act as the general contractor for our customers in connection with the installation of their solar power systems. All essential costs are estimated at the time of entering into the EPC agreement for a particular project or project portfolio, and these costs are reflected in the overall fixed price that we charge our customers for the project. These cost estimates are preliminary and may or may not be covered by contracts between us and the subcontractors, suppliers and other parties involved in the project. In addition, we require qualified, licensed subcontractors to install most of our solar power systems. Shortages of skilled labor could significantly delay a project or otherwise increase our costs. Should miscalculations in planning a project occur, including those due to unexpected increases in commodity prices or labor costs, or delays in execution occur and we are unable to increase the EPC sales price commensurately, we may not achieve our expected margins or our results of operations may be adversely affected.

5

Expansion of the pipeline of our solar power project business exposes us to a number of risks and uncertainties.

 

As our net revenue is derived from our solar power project business, we will be increasingly exposed to the risks associated with solar power projects. Further, our future success largely depends on our ability to expand our solar power project pipeline. The risks and uncertainties associated with our solar power project business and our ability to expand our solar power project pipeline include:

 

the need to raise funds to develop greenfield or purchase late-stage solar power projects, which we may be unable to obtain on commercially reasonable terms or at all;

 

the uncertainty of being able to sell the projects or secure purchasers in a timely manner, in which case we may need to operate such projects for an extended period of time;

 

the uncertainty of being able to receive full payment for the sold projects upon completion or receive payment in a timely manner;

 

failure of our business partners with which we work together under certain cooperation agreements to operate in a way satisfactory to us or any disputes with our business partners to develop projects or enter new geographic markets;

 

delays and cost overruns as a result of a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including delays in regulatory approvals, construction, grid-connection and customer acceptance testing;

 

delays or denial of required approvals, permits or licenses by relevant government authorities in connection with the construction, grid-connection and operation of solar power projects;

 

failure to negotiate favorable payment terms with suppliers;

 

unforeseeable engineering problems, construction or other unexpected delays and contractor performance shortfalls;

 

labor, components and materials supply delays, shortages or disruptions, or work stoppages;

 

failure to grid connection and dispatch agreements, execute power purchase agreements or other arrangements that are commercially acceptable to us;

 

diversion of significant management attention and other resources;

 

failure to execute our project pipeline expansion plan effectively; and

 

changes in government regulations and policies.

 

If we are unable to successfully expand our solar power project business, and in particular, our solar power project pipeline, we may be unable to expand our business, maintain our competitive position, improve our profitability and generate the cash flows we have currently forecasted.

6

 

Our development activities may be subject to cost overruns or delays, which may result in reduction or forfeiture of FIT payments or would materially and adversely affect our financial results and results of operations.

 

Development of our solar power projects may be adversely affected by circumstances outside of our control, including inclement weather, a failure to receive regulatory approvals on schedule or third-party delays in providing solar modules, inverters or other materials. Obtaining full permits for our solar power projects is time consuming and we may not be able to meet our expected timetable for obtaining full permits for our solar power projects in the pipeline. In addition, from time to time, we may need to engage external EPC contractors for our solar power projects, and we may not be able to negotiate satisfactory EPC agreements. Changes in project plans or designs, or defective or late execution may increase our costs and cause delays. Increases in the prices of solar products and balance-of-system components may increase procurement costs. Labor shortages, work stoppages or labor disputes could significantly delay a project or otherwise increase our costs. In addition, delays in obtaining, our inability to obtain or a lack of proper construction permits or post-construction approvals could delay or prevent us from construction of our solar power projects, commencing operation and connecting to the relevant grid.

 

Moreover, we rely on our related parties, as well as a limited number of third-party suppliers, for certain components and equipment used in the construction of our solar power projects, such as solar modules. To the extent the processes that our suppliers use to manufacture components are proprietary, we may be unable to obtain comparable components from alternative suppliers. Any failure of a supplier to supply components and equipment in a timely manner, or at all, or to supply components and equipment that meet our quality, quantity and cost requirements, could impair our ability to install solar power projects or may increase our costs.

 

In addition, we typically utilize and rely on third-party contractors to construct and install our solar power projects. If our contractors do not satisfy their obligations or do not perform work that meets our quality standards or if there is a shortage of third-party contractors or if there are labor strikes that interfere with the ability of our employees or contractors to complete their work on time or within budget, we could experience significant delays or cost overruns.

 

We may not be able to recover any of these losses in connection with construction cost overruns or delays. In addition, if we are unable to connect a solar power project to the power grid on schedule, we may experience lower FIT, as FIT regimes generally ratchet down the FIT awarded to solar power projects that connect later to the power grid. In addition, in certain cases of delay, we might not be able to obtain any FIT or PPA at all, as certain PPAs require that we connect to the transmission grid by a certain date. If the solar power project is significantly delayed, we may forfeit the PPA and we may only be able to obtain reduced FIT payments or may even become ineligible for FIT payments at all. A reduction or forfeiture of FIT payments or would materially and adversely affect the financial results and results of operations for that solar power project.

 

We may not be able to develop or acquire additional attractive solar power projects to grow our NTP portfolio.

 

Our current business strategy includes plans to further grow the solar power project portfolio for our project rights sale business, or NTP portfolio, and own and operate some of the solar power projects we develop. To develop a solar power project, we are required to enter into investment agreements, development agreements, interconnection agreements and/or other contractual agreements with the local authorities and obtain relevant permits, licenses and approvals. Whether or not we can secure an investment agreement is subject to the discretion of government bodies and may be influenced by factors beyond our control, such as market conditions and the allocated solar power project quota in some countries, based on which the agreement can be entered into government incentive programs. Our competitors may have greater financial resources, more effective or established localized business presence or greater willingness or ability to operate with little or no operating margins for sustained periods of time. It is difficult to predict whether and when we will be awarded a new solar power project. Any increase in competition or reduction in our competitive capabilities could have a significant adverse impact on our market share and on the margins we generate from our solar power projects.

 

If we cannot complete an agreement on schedule, or at all, the PPA/FIT price may be reduced, our reputation may be damaged and the difficulty of winning new projects may increase. In addition, in any event the government bodies terminate an agreement with us, we will have limited recourse. Although the government bodies have historically not terminated agreements with us, there is no assurance that they would not do so in the future.

 

If we cannot secure the opportunities to develop new solar power projects, our business, financial position and financial conditions will be materially adversely affected.

7

Other difficulties executing this business strategy, particularly in new jurisdictions we may enter, include:

 

accurately prioritizing geographic markets for entry, including estimates on addressable market demand;

 

obtaining construction, environmental and other permits and approvals;

 

securing land, rooftop or other site control;

 

managing local operational, capital investment or components sourcing regulatory requirements;

 

connecting to the power grid on schedule and within budget;

 

connecting to the power grid if there is insufficient grid capacity;

 

identifying, attracting and retaining qualified development specialists, technical engineering specialists and other personnel;

 

managing any acquired assets or assets held under affiliates;

 

securing cost-competitive financing on attractive terms;

 

operating and maintaining solar power projects to maintain the power output and system performance; and

 

collecting FIT payments and other economic incentives as expected.

 

Our financial leverage may hamper our ability to expand and may materially affect our results of operations. Our borrowing levels and the tightening of credit generally in the industry in the PRC may adversely impact our ability to obtain new financing.

 

We have relied on working capital, short-term and long-term financing, including development loan financings, construction loan financings and project financings, and capital market financings to fund our capital requirements and expect to continue to do so in the future. These financings, which consist of short-term borrowings, long-term borrowings, bond and other long-term liabilities, are primarily from financial institutions and fund investors globally, as well as financing lease companies in China. As of December 31, 2020, we had short-term borrowings of $32.0 million, bond payable of $9.0 million and failed sale-lease back and finance lease liabilities of $52.1 million, and a debt-to-asset ratio of 45.6%.

 

We had a working capital of $48.4 million as of December 31, 2020 and the amount of our borrowings and financing liabilities could constrain our operational flexibility, including requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows to be set aside to service our debt obligations, increasing our exposure to interest rate fluctuations and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing. Furthermore, governments may pass measures to tighten credit. All the above may impair our ability to obtain financing on favorable terms, or at all. In addition, we may not be able to raise necessary funding on favorable terms, or at all, to refinance our debt obligations. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to service our debt obligations, our business, prospects and financial conditions may be materially and adversely affected. If we fail to obtain additional sources of financing, we may not be able to continue to fund our operations or business.

 

We intend to obtain additional debt obligations to finance our operations and future expansion. To the extent we are successful in obtaining additional financing, we will allocate an increasing portion of our cash flows to service our debt obligations. This could impair our ability to make necessary capital expenditures, develop business opportunities or make strategic acquisitions. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flows from operations in the future to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures, in which case we may seek additional financing, dispose of certain assets or seek to refinance some or all of our debt. In addition, these alternatives may not be implemented on satisfactory terms, if at all. In the event we are unable to meet our debt obligations when they become due or if our creditors take legal action against us for repayment upon any default, we may have to liquidate our long-term assets to repay our creditors. Such a situation would materially and adversely affect our operations and prevent us from successfully implementing our business strategy. In addition, we may have difficulty converting our long-term assets into current assets in such a situation and may suffer losses from the sale of our long-term assets and may not be able to continue our business.

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We face a number of risks involving PPAs and project-level financing arrangements, including failure or delay in entering into PPAs, defaults by counterparties and contingent contractual terms such as price adjustment, termination, buy-out, acceleration or other clauses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We may not be able to enter into PPAs for our solar power projects due to intense competition, increased supply of electricity from other sources, reduction in retail electricity price, changes in government policies or other factors. There may be a limited pool of potential purchasers in some jurisdictions for electricity generated by our solar power plants due to regulatory policies. The willingness of purchasers to purchase electricity from an IPP like us may be based on a number of factors and not solely on pricing and surety of supply. If we cannot enter into PPAs on terms favorable to us, or at all, it would negatively impact our revenue and our decisions regarding the development of additional power plants. We may experience delays in entering into PPAs for some of our solar power projects or may not be able to replace an expiring PPA with a contract on equivalent terms and conditions, or otherwise at prices that permit operation of the related facility on a profitable basis. Any delay in entering into PPAs may adversely affect our ability to enjoy the cash flows generated by such projects. If we are unable to replace an expiring PPA with an acceptable new PPA, the affected site may temporarily or permanently cease operations, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Substantially all of the electricity generated by our solar power projects will be sold under long-term PPAs with government end users and a few to licensed suppliers or commercial and industrial users. We expect our future projects will also have long-term public PPAs or similar offtake arrangements such as tariff programs but the portion under licensed suppliers or commercial and industrial users may increase due to our focus in DG projects, and also due to the falling system cost which makes solar energy more accessible to non-State Grid users such as commercial and industrial users. If, for any reason, any of the purchasers of power under these contracts are unable or unwilling to fulfill their related contractual obligations or if they refuse to accept delivery of power delivered thereunder or if they otherwise terminate such agreements prior to the expiration thereof, our assets, liabilities, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. Further, to the extent any of our power purchasers are, or are controlled by, governmental entities, our facilities may be subject to legislative or other political action that may impair their contractual performance or contain contractual remedies that do not provide adequate compensation in the event of a counterparty default.

 

Some of our PPAs are subject to price adjustments over time or subject to inflation. If the price under any of our PPAs is reduced below a level that makes a project economically viable, our financial conditions, cash flow and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Further, some of our long-term PPAs do not include inflation-based price increases or other price adjustment clauses. Certain of the PPAs for our projects and those for projects that we have acquired and may acquire in the future contain or may contain provisions that allow the offtake purchaser to terminate or buy out the project or require us to pay liquidated damages upon the occurrence of certain events. If these provisions are exercised, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

 

In addition, certain of the project-level financing arrangements for projects allow, and certain of the projects that we may acquire in the future may allow, the lenders or investors to accelerate the repayment of the financing arrangement in the event that a PPA is terminated or if certain operating thresholds or performance measures are not achieved within specified time periods if we do not timely notify the lenders and investors such event and fail to provide additional guarantee. Certain of our PPAs and project-level financing arrangements include, and in the future may include, provisions that would permit the counterparty to terminate the contract or accelerate maturity in the event we own, directly or indirectly, less than 50% of the combined voting power or, in some cases, if we cease to be the majority owner, directly or indirectly, of the applicable project subsidiary. The termination of any of our PPAs or the acceleration of the maturity of any of our financing arrangements as a result of a change-in-control event could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We may not be able to identify suitable sites and obtain related access and use right to expand our project pipeline

 

Solar power projects require solar and geological conditions that can only be found in a limited number of geographic areas.

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Our solar power projects in overseas markets are primarily ground-mounted DG projects, with a few small-scale utility-scale projects and community solar gardens. Our solar power projects in China are primarily the rooftop DG projects. There is intense competition for a limited number of project sites appropriate for solar power projects. As the solar power project market continues to evolve, the number of attractive project sites available has decreased and will continue to decrease.

 

Even if we sign investment or development agreements, we may not be able to find and secure the use rights to suitable project sites for the relevant projects. We generally obtain land for our ground-mounted projects through land use right granting or assignment by the government, or leasing from the land owners; and obtain the access and use rights for our rooftop DG projects through leasing from the roof top owners. Our rights to the properties used for our solar power projects may be challenged by property owners or other third parties, in case of any disputes over the ownership or lease of the properties. It is critical to guarantee and maintain our land use right on the land parcel and access and use right on the roof top during the life cycle of solar power projects. In case the relevant lease agreement were determined null and void by the competent authorities or our land use right and access and use right on roof top were recouped by the government, our solar power projects may be forced to cease operations and our results of operation and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.

 

We require flat land parcels for our small-scale solar power projects, including ground-mounted DG projects, small-scale utility projects and community solar gardens. Also, it is crucial to have a land parcel close to the grid connection point for our ground-mounted projects for interconnection to the power grid and in order to control the cost for the construction of transmission line and avoid the electricity transmission loss. However, it is increasingly difficult to secure flat land parcels close to transmission lines. Once we have identified a suitable site, our ability to obtain requisite land use rights or access and use rights to the roof top is subject to growing competition from other solar energy producers that may have better access to local government support, financial or other resources to locate and obtain rights of such sites. Our competitors may impede our development efforts by acquiring control of all or a portion of a solar site we seek to develop. If we were unable to find or obtain use rights for suitable solar power project sites, our ability to develop new solar power projects on a timely basis might be harmed, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We strictly check the land ownership and use and access rights to avoid agricultural land, wetland or any land which require rezoning. However, we cannot assure you that we will not acquire land with the understanding that such land may be rezoned for solar power project development in the future. Rezoning may take longer than expected or may not been possible. Any future rezoning efforts may materially and adversely impact our business and results of operation.

 

Our legal rights to certain real properties used for our solar power projects are subject to third party rights and may be challenged by property owners or third parties.

 

Our rights to the properties used for our solar power projects may be challenged by property owners and other third parties, subject to other third-party rights such as right of passage and right to place cables and other equipment on the properties, which may result in certain interferences with our use of the properties. Our rights to the properties used for our solar power projects may be challenged by property owners and other third parties for various other reasons as well. For example, we may not have the exclusive right to use a given site. Any such challenge, if successful, could impair the development or operations of our solar power projects on such properties. We may also be subject to the risk of potential disputes with property owners or third parties who otherwise have rights to or interests in the properties used for our solar power projects. Such disputes, whether resolved in our favor or not, may divert management’s attention, harm our reputation or otherwise disrupt our business.

 

We may be subject to unforeseen costs, liabilities or obligations when operating and maintaining solar power projects.

 

We operate and maintain the solar power projects in our IPP portfolio. In addition to the operations and maintenance, or O&M, services which our in-house O&M team provides to our developed solar power projects in China, we also enter into separate contractual agreements to operate and maintain substantially all of the solar power projects operated by us outside China. Pursuant to these agreements, we generally perform scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, and provide operating and other asset management services, and we subcontract certain O&M services, including security and repair, to third-parties that may not perform their services adequately.

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If we or our third-party contractors fail to properly operate and maintain the solar power projects, the solar power projects may experience decreased performance, reduced useful life or shutdowns. Through changes in our own operation or in local conditions, the costs of operating the project may increase, including costs related to labor, equipment, insurance and taxes. If they are careless or negligent, resulting in damage to third parties, we may become liable for the consequences of any resulting damage. We may also experience equipment malfunction or failure, leading to unexpected maintenance needs, unplanned outages or other operational issues. In addition, inconsistencies in the quality of solar panels, solar modules, balance-of-system components or maintenance services for our solar power projects may affect the system efficiency of our solar power projects. We may also encounter difficulties selling electricity to the power grid due to failures in infrastructure or transmission systems. To the extent that any of the foregoing affects our ability to sell electricity to the power grid, or we incur increased costs in relation to operating and maintaining solar power projects, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected.

 

The delay between making significant upfront investments in our solar power projects and receiving revenue could materially and adversely affect our liquidity, business and results of operations.

 

There are generally many months or even years between our initial significant upfront investments in developing permits to develop solar power projects we expect to own and operate and when we commence to receive revenue from the sale of electricity generated by such solar power projects after connecting on grid. Such investments include, without limitation, consulting, legal, accounting and other third-party fees, costs associated with feasibility study, payments for land rights, government permits, large transmission and PPA deposits or other payments, which may be non-refundable. Furthermore, we historically relied on our own equity contribution, bank loans, capital market financing and third-party financing to pay for costs and expenses incurred during project development, especially to third parties for solar modules and balance-of-system components and EPC and O&M services. Solar power projects typically generate revenue only after becoming commercially operational and starting to sell electricity. There may be an especially long delay from initial land and interconnection assessments to projects becoming late-stage, especially when we obtain permits directly from regulators and site control rights directly from prior rights holders under our primary permit development model. Between our initial investments in the development of permits for solar power projects and their connection to the transmission grid, there may be adverse developments to such solar power projects. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain all of the permits as anticipated, permits that were obtained may expire or become ineffective or we may not be able to obtain financing as anticipated. In addition, the timing gap between our upfront investments and actual generation of revenue, or any added delay in between due to unforeseen events, could put strains on our liquidity and resources, and materially and adversely affect our profitability and results of operations.

 

Our ability to transmit and sell the electricity generated from the solar power projects operated by us relies on the grid connection, dispatch agreements, PPAs and other contractual agreements.

 

We sell electricity generated from our operated solar power projects, mainly in China. Before developing a solar power project for our IPP business, we have to obtain the relevant local governmental grid company’s preliminary consent on our grid connection application and the final approval on the grid connection plan in order to connect our solar power projects to their power grids.

 

In China, we can sell the electricity in gross metering or net metering. Under gross metering, electricity is sold to The State Grid Corporation of China, or the State Grid, an enterprise which constructs and operates power grids and is a pilot state holding company approved by the State Council of China to carry out state-authorized investment. Under the net metering, we first sell the electricity to non-State Grid power purchasers and the remaining unpurchased electricity to the State Grid. Before we can supply the electricity to our power purchasers, we are required to enter into the grid connection and dispatch agreements with the grid providers and energy management contracts, or EMCs, including PPAs with the power purchasers. Grid connection and dispatch agreements generally have terms of 1 to 5 years and are, in practice, subject to renewal by the parties when original terms expire. The EMCs, which provide the terms and pricing of the sales and include the PPAs, are in 20 years and are subject to renewal by the parties when original terms expire. If we are unable to renew the agreements upon expiration, we may not be able to replace them with agreements with equivalent terms and conditions, or at all, or we may experience significant delays or costs related to securing replacements. If we are unable to agree with the grid providers on a new grid connection and dispatch agreements, the affected solar power project may temporarily or permanently cease operations, and we may not be able to operate the project beyond the initial term of the EMCs and PPAs. See also “—We face a number of risks involving PPAs and project-level financing arrangements, including failure or delay in entering into PPAs, defaults by counterparties and contingent contractual terms such as price adjustment, termination, buy-out, acceleration or other clauses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.” In addition, if, for any reason, the grid providers are unable or unwilling to fulfill their related contractual obligations or if they refuse to accept delivery of electricity delivered thereunder or otherwise terminate such agreements prior to the expiration thereof, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow could be materially adversely affected.

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If we cannot produce agreed electricity for reasons solely attributed to us, the agreed PPA/FIT prices may be reduced, results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

In China, all solar projects approved by the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, are eligible to receive an attractive FIT for 20 years in principle and we expect our solar power projects to be long-term contracted assets. Under gross metering, we receive a total FIT amount, which comprise an agreed electricity sales price from the State Grid and the government subsidies, for 20 years. Under net metering, we receive subsidies from the government and an agreed negotiated electricity sales price from the power purchasers. However, if we cannot produce electricity normally for a number of days for reasons solely attributed to us, the agreed PPA/FIT prices may be reduced and results of operations and cash flow could be materially adversely affected.

 

If the power grid to which one or more of our solar power projects is connected becomes partially or fully inoperable due to maintenance or unexpected interruptions, the transmission of electricity may be affected, and results of operations and cash flow could be materially adversely affected.

 

If the power grid to which one or more of our solar power projects is connected becomes partially or fully inoperable due to maintenance or unexpected interruptions, the affected project will not be able to transmit electricity to the power grid during that time. We expect power grids to be inoperable for a few days per year due to regular maintenance work. The grid providers will not usually compensate us for lost income due to down time. Although none of the power grids that we have been connected to have been rendered inoperable for significant periods of time, there is no assurance that the power grids will continue to function without any issues.

 

Our growth prospects and future profitability depend to a significant extent on global liquidity and the availability of additional funding options with acceptable terms.

 

We require a significant amount of cash to fund the development, installation and construction of our projects and the operation of our solar power projects. We may also require additional cash due to changing business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to pursue in order to remain competitive. Historically, we primarily obtained development loans, construction loans, project financing and capital market financing from financial institutions, fund investors globally, as well as financing lease companies in China. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in locating additional suitable sources of financing in the time periods required or at all, or on terms or at costs that we find attractive or acceptable. Failure to manage discretionary spending and raise additional capital or debt financing as required may adversely impact our ability to achieve our intended business objectives.

 

Our ability to obtain external financing is subject to a number of uncertainties, including:

 

our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;

 

the general condition of global equity and debt capital markets;

 

regulatory and government support in the form of tax credits, rebates, FIT price support schemes and other incentives;

 

the continued confidence of banks and other financial institutions in our company and the solar industry;

 

economic, political and other conditions in the jurisdictions where we operate; and

 

our ability to comply with any financial covenants under the debt financing.

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In addition, rising interest rates could adversely impact our ability to secure financing on favorable terms and our cost of capital. Any additional equity financing may be dilutive to our shareholders and any debt financing may require restrictive covenants. We may not be able to obtain project financing or refinance our borrowings as they mature, or if the financing is available, the terms may not be acceptable to us. In the event that we are unable to obtain extensions of these borrowings or sufficient alternative financing at reasonable terms, we may not be able to repay such borrowings in full or at all when due, or fully execute our business plan. If we were to default on the repayment of these borrowings, we would not be able to continue our operations as a going concern. Moreover, future turbulence in global economic conditions and the potential impact on the liquidity of financial institutions may have an adverse effect on our ability to fund our operations and future expansion through borrowings or our ability to borrow on terms that we believe to be reasonable, or at all. Our ability to fund our operations, develop, construct and operate solar power projects or otherwise respond to competitive pressures could be significantly impaired and we may be unable to fully execute our business plan. Our operations, results of operations and growth prospects may also be materially and adversely affected if the global economic conditions worsen or do not improve.

 

Volatility or large decrease in the prices of solar power project may cause significant fluctuations or declines in our revenue.

 

The prices of special purpose vehicles which hold the ownership of our solar power projects, or project SPVs, and solar power projects are primarily based on the electricity revenue the projects can generate and the rate of returns. The electricity price may vary. See “—Decreases in the FIT price, public utility price or market discount rate could harm our revenue.” Investors may compare the rate of returns generated from the solar power projects with the rate of returns in the financing or investment markets. Any significant volatility or decreases in the electricity price or rate of return may decrease the prices of solar power projects which may subject us to major fluctuations or declines in our revenue.

 

Decreases in the FIT price, public utility price or market discount rate could harm our revenue.

 

Revenues generated from our IPP business are primarily from China. Under gross metering, the revenues we can receive are fixed at the FIT price which is set by the government. Under net metering, the prices we sell the electricity to the non-State Grid power purchasers are mainly at a market discount to the public utility rate. The market price of electricity can be subject to significant fluctuations and can be affected by drivers such as the cost of traditional fossil fuels used for electricity generation, the discovery of new fossil fuel sources, additional electricity generation capacity, additional electric transmission and distribution lines, technological or regulatory changes, increased energy conservation or for a number of other reasons. However, given that China largely runs a state-led economy, the FIT price may be readily lowered by the relevant Chinese authorities with little, if any, regard to market conditions. While we may resort to domestic courts and other available forums for remedies, such actions may bear no fruit and are bound to generate extra legal costs and fees. Regardless of the rationales underlying the price adjustments, any decrease in the FIT price, market discount rate or the public utility rate may negatively affect our results of operations.

 

EPC is subject to risks associated with fluctuations in the prices of solar modules and balance-of-system components or fluctuations in the costs of design, construction and labor.

 

EPC is part of the process during the solar power projects’ development and construction. We may engage our in-house EPC team or engage external experienced and qualified EPC contractors to conduct and monitor the EPC process. Despite that, it is the market practice for us, as the developer, to procure the key components, such as solar modules and balance-of-system components. Design, construction, labor and installation costs incurred by our in-house EPC team or external EPC contracts may also vary. Any increase in the prices of solar modules or balance-of-system components or fluctuations in design, construction, labor and installation costs may increase our procurement cost for the key components or costs to engage external contractors and hence may materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

The reduction, modification, delay or elimination of government subsidies and economic incentives for on-grid solar power applications may reduce the profitability of our business and materially adversely affect our business.

 

We believe that the near-term growth of the market for on-grid applications continues to depend on the availability and size of government subsidies and economic incentives which can be influenced by various factors, such as national subsidy policy and the local desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price. If the reduction or elimination of government subsidies and economic incentives are not implemented prudently, such reduction or elimination may adversely affect the growth of this market or result in increased price competition, either of which could cause our revenues to decline.

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When upfront system costs are factored into the cost of electricity generation, the cost of solar power substantially exceeds the cost of power generated from conventional means in many markets. As a result, national and local governmental bodies in many countries have provided subsidies and economic incentives in the form of FITs, rebates, tax credits and other incentives to end-users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar power products to promote the use of solar power and to reduce dependence on other forms of energy.

 

However, as the solar power industry continues to develop, these government subsidies and economic incentives have been reduced and could continue to be reduced or be eliminated altogether. For example, reductions in FIT programs in Germany have continued since 2014 and the government in China has issued various policies to control FIT for on-grid solar power projects since 2014. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—China—Renewable Energy Law and Other Government Directives.”

 

Although the solar power industry is currently moving towards the economies of scale necessary for solar power to become cost-effective in a non-subsidized market, any reduction, modification, delay or elimination of government subsidies and economic incentives by the Chinese government and the governments of other countries for on-grid solar power applications could result in decreased demand and pricing of our solar power projects, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

 

Industry trends, in particular limited interconnection capacity, will have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.

 

The solar industry is expected to continue to be highly competitive due to more new entrants to the solar project market and upstream solar manufacturing players moving to the downstream project business. Increasing solar generation capacity may result in continued interconnection capacity scarcity. If the industry continues to suffer from scarcity in interconnection capacity resulting in slowed market growth and potential regulatory curtailments, our business and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

 

Our future success substantially depends on our ability to closely monitor and accurately predict market demand which exposes us to a number of risks and uncertainties.

 

We intend to closely match our solar power projects and electricity to the market demand for our products. Any failure to accurately predict market demand may result in our below-supply or oversupply of our solar power projects and electricity required to meet the market demand. Our ability to achieve a balance is subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including:

 

the ability to maintain existing customer relationships, attract new customers and expand our market share;

 

the ability to maintain a financially healthy level of liquidity, and to manage our liquidity if we are unable to obtain additional funds and/or refinance existing debt on commercially viable terms or at all;

 

the occurrence of construction delays and cost overruns;

 

the occurrence of industrial disturbances, which are more likely to arise when we suffer overcapacity and our workers are not fully employed, or when our suppliers are not paid in a timely fashion;

 

the ability to install and test the solar system according to the agreed time schedule;

 

the delay or denial of required approvals by relevant government authorities; and

 

any significant diversion of management attention.

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If we are unable to successfully respond to market demand, or if we fail to resolve any of the risks and uncertainties, we may be unable to expand our business, maintain our profitability and stay competitive. Moreover, even if we are able to manage our growth, we may be unable to secure sufficient purchase orders, which could adversely affect our business and operations.

 

Turbulence in global financial markets and economies may adversely affect the solar industry, the demand for solar project products, and our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

 

Demand for solar project products is influenced by macroeconomic factors, such as global economic conditions, the supply and the prices of other energy products, such as oil, coal and natural gas, as well as government regulations and policies concerning the public utility industry. A decrease in prices of fossil fuels, for example, could reduce demand for alternative forms of energy, such as solar power. We are also affected by the market and industry trends. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.” We may be adversely affected by a volatile solar power market and industry conditions; in particular, the demand and prices for our solar power projects and electricity generated by our solar power projects may decline, which may reduce our revenues and profitability.”

 

There may still be substantial uncertainties in the global credit and lending environment. If the demand for solar power projects deteriorates due to these macroeconomic factors or solar market and industry trends, our liquidity and financial condition, including our ability to refinance maturing liabilities and access the capital markets to meet liquidity needs, and the liquidity and financial condition of our customers may be adversely affected. Such development would delay and lengthen our cash collection cycles and negatively affect our operating results. Additionally, our ADS price may decrease if investors have concerns that our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected by a global economic downturn.

 

We may be adversely affected by volatile solar power market and industry conditions; in particular, the demand and prices for our solar power projects and electricity generated by our solar power projects may decline, which may reduce our revenues and profitability.

 

Our business is affected by conditions in the solar project market and industry. In December 2016 and December 2017, the NDRC announced the reduction in FITs for utility-scale solar plants. The administration of the then U.S. President Donald Trump had less favorable policies for industries engaged in clean energy. As a result, many solar power project developers and solar system installers, like us, were adversely affected and the financial condition weakened. In addition, decreases in prices of other energies, such as oil, electricity and wind power, may also negatively affect the demand for solar power projects. The solar industry is also expected to continue to be highly competitive due to more new entrants to the solar project market and upstream solar manufacturing players moving to the downstream project business. If the supply of solar projects grows faster than demand, and if governments continue to reduce financial support for the solar industry, impose trade barriers or impose curtailments in the solar industry, demand for our projects, as well as our average selling price, could be materially and adversely affected.

 

If solar power project technology is proven not suitable for widespread adoption, or if demand for solar power projects continues to lag behind their supply, our revenues may decline and we may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.

 

The solar market is still in development and the extent of acceptance of solar power projects remains uncertain. Historical and current market data on the solar power industry are not as readily available as those for established industries where trends can be assessed more reliably from data gathered over a longer period of time. In addition, demand for solar power projects has not developed as fast as many market players have anticipated although the solar industry continues to experience lower costs, improved efficiency and higher electricity output. Many factors may affect the viability of widespread adoption of solar power projects technology and demand for solar power projects, including:

 

cost-effectiveness, performance and reliability of solar power projects compared to conventional and other renewable energy sources and products; and the availability of grid capacity to dispatch power generated from solar power projects;

 

success of other alternative energy generation technologies, such as wind power, hydroelectric power and biomass;

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environmental concerns related to solar power projects and other local permit issues;

 

public perceptions of the direct and indirect benefits of adopting renewable energy technology;

 

fluctuations in economic and market conditions that affect the viability of conventional and other renewable energy sources, such as increases or decreases in the prices of oil and other fossil fuels or decreases in capital expenditures by end-users of solar power projects;

 

fluctuations in interest rates, which may affect the effective prices paid for solar power projects by end-users who rely on long-term loans to finance their purchases;

 

the cost of capital and availability of credit, loans and other forms of financing for solar power projects;

 

the availability of government subsidies and incentives to support the development of the solar industry;

 

regulations and policies governing the electric utility industry that may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar energy; and

 

deregulation of the electric power industry and the broader energy industry.

 

If solar power projects technology is proven not viable for widespread adoption or the demand for solar power projects fails to develop sufficiently, our revenues may suffer and we may be unable to sustain our profitability.

 

Concentration in a limited number of customers for the sale of our utility-scale projects may experience us to additional risks and significant fluctuations or declines in our revenues.

 

In our project development, we may sell our utility-scale projects only to utilities companies or grid system operators. Although most of our developed solar power projects are not utility-scale projects, concentration in a limited number of customers in this utility-scale project market may, among others, limit our ability to expose to other purchasers, reduce our power to negotiate the pricing terms and sales terms and rely on the payment from the governmental grid companies, which may cause fluctuations or declines in our revenues.

 

We may not be able to locate third party purchasers for our solar projects on a timely manner, or at all, or we may not be able to timely renew or replace expiring PPAs or other contractual arrangements.

 

Upon completing solar projects, we either sell them to our related parties or third-party purchasers or operate them. For those projects we intend to sell, if we are not able to locate third party purchasers and agree on a purchase and sales contract on terms and conditions favorable to us and in a timely manner, or at all, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

 

For those projects we intend to operate and generate electricity for sale, if we are not able to timely renew or replace expiring PPAs or other contractual arrangements, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow could be materially adversely affected. See “—Our ability to transmit and sell the electricity generated from the solar power projects operated by us relies on the grid connection, dispatch agreements, PPAs and other contractual agreements.”

 

Limited number of purchasers of electricity generated by solar energy may expose us and our solar power projects to additional risk.

 

Transmission and distribution of electricity is either monopolized or highly concentrated in most jurisdictions, there are a limited number of possible purchasers for electricity generated by solar power in a given geographic location, including transmission grid operators, state and investor-owned power companies, public utility districts and cooperatives. As a result, there is a concentrated pool of potential purchasers for electricity generated by our solar power plants and projects, which may restrict our ability to negotiate favorable terms under new PPAs and could impact our ability to find new customers for the electricity generated by our generation facilities should this become necessary. Furthermore, if the financial condition of these grid companies, utilities and/or power purchasers deteriorates or government policies or regulations to which they are currently subject that compel them to source renewable energy supplies change, demand for electricity produced by our plants could be negatively impacted. In addition, provisions in our PPAs or applicable laws may provide for the curtailment of delivery of electricity for various reasons, including preventing damage to transmission systems, system emergencies, force majeure or economic reasons. Such curtailment would reduce revenues to us from PPAs. If we cannot enter into PPAs on terms favorable to us, or at all, or if the purchaser under our PPAs were to exercise its curtailment or other rights to reduce purchases or payments under such arrangements, our revenues and our decisions regarding development of additional projects in the energy segment may be adversely affected.

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Local governmental grid companies may reduce the electricity they purchase from us, which may cause our revenues to decline.

 

Although in some jurisdictions, the local governmental grid companies are obliged to purchase all the electricity generated by us, they may adjust the amount of electricity they purchase from us as result of constraints on grid connection capacity, or curtailment. If this happens, our revenues will be negatively impacted.

 

We may be exposed to credit risks of our customers. If the practice of requiring customers to make advance payments when they place orders with us declines, we will experience increased needs to finance our working capital requirements and are exposed to increased credit risk.

 

We have required our purchasers acquiring our solar power projects or project SPVs to make an advance payment of a certain percentage of their orders, a business practice that has helped us to manage our accounts receivable, prepay our suppliers and reduce the amount of funds that we needed to finance our working capital requirements. This practice of requiring our customers to make advance payments is in line with market trends. Any decline in this practice will pressure us to increase our working capital turnover or obtain additional financing to fund our working capital requirements. In addition, in our project development business, the normal practice is that purchasers make payments of purchase price in stages. In our IPP business, we will be paid monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly or half-yearly based on the agreements signed with the power purchasers. Any disruptions in the financial markets and other macroeconomic challenges which have affected the global economy may cause our customers to experience difficulties in making timely payment to us. Any inability of our customers to pay us timely, or at all, may materially and adversely affect our cash flows and operating results.

 

If we are unable to effectively manage risks related to international sales, our ability to expand our business abroad would be materially and severely impaired.

 

As we continue to expand our business internationally, our international business may expose us to a number of risks with respect to our international marketing, distribution and sales activities, including:

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, such as exchange rate volatility between the Euro and the U.S. dollar and the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar;

 

increased costs associated with maintaining marketing efforts in various countries;

 

the increased cost of understanding local markets and trends and developing and maintaining an effective marketing and distribution presence in various countries;

 

difficulty and costs relating to compliance with the different commercial, environmental and legal requirements of the overseas markets in which we offer our products;

 

difficulty in engaging and retaining sales personnel who are knowledgeable about, and can function effectively in, overseas markets and manage the overseas operations;

 

the difficulty of managing the development, construction and sale of our solar power projects on a timely and profitable basis as a result of technical difficulties, commercial disputes with our customers and changes in regulations, among other factors;

 

the difficulty of providing customer service and support in various countries;

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any failure to develop appropriate risk management and internal control structures tailored to overseas operations;

 

differing regulatory and tax regimes across different markets;

 

trade barriers, such as export requirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and expenses, which could increase the prices of solar modules and therefore raise the costs for our solar power projects and make us less competitive in some countries;

 

protectionism on the rise, as evidenced by the decision of Great Britain to leave the European Union and the continuation of the hawkish U.S. trade policies towards China, including imposed tariffs on goods imported from China;

 

failure to comply with international sanction laws, including the rules and regulations promulgated by the office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury;

 

failure to control the increase of our operating expenses without a commensurate increase in our revenues as we hire additional sales and marketing personnel in connection with the expansion of our sales business; and

 

any unanticipated changes in prevailing economic conditions and regulatory requirements.

 

If we are unable to effectively manage these risks related to international sales, our ability to expand our business abroad will be materially and severely impaired.

 

We conduct our business globally and are subject to global and local risks related to economic, regulatory, social and political uncertainties.

 

We conduct our IPP business and/or project development business in a number of countries, such as United States, Canada, China, Poland, Hungary, Spain, France, UK and Romania. Within the United States, our business footprints spread over many states and the idiosyncrasies of those states in terms of regulatory environment and legal framework may have a material impact on our local operations. Our business is therefore subject to diverse and constantly changing economic, regulatory, social and political conditions in the jurisdictions in which we operate.

 

Conducting business in the international markets exposes us to a number of risks globally and in each of the jurisdictions where we operate, including, without limitation:

 

economic and financial conditions, including the stability of credit markets, foreign currency controls and fluctuations;

 

the supply and prices of other energy products such as oil, coal and natural gas in the relevant jurisdictions;

 

changes in government regulations, policies, tax, subsidies and incentives, particularly those concerning the electric utility industry and the solar industry;

 

complex regulations in numerous jurisdictions, including political risks, including risks of expropriation and nationalization of assets, potential losses due to civil unrests, acts of terrorism and war, regional and global political or military tensions, strained or altered foreign relations, and protectionism;

 

compliance with local environmental, safety, health and other labor laws and regulations, which can be onerous and costly, as the magnitude, complexity and continuous amendments to the laws and regulations are difficult to predict and liabilities, costs, obligations and requirements associated with these laws and regulations can be substantial;

 

dependence on governments, utility companies and other entities for electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation and other utilities or infrastructure needs;

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local corporate governance and other legal requirements;

 

difficulties with local operating and market conditions, particularly regarding customs, taxation and labor; and

 

failure of our contractual parties to honor their obligations to us, and potential disputes with clients, contractors, suppliers or local residents or communities.

 

To the extent that our business operations are affected by unexpected and adverse economic, regulatory, social and political conditions in the jurisdictions in which we have operations, we may experience project disruptions, loss of assets and personnel, and other indirect losses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks.

 

Our business could be adversely affected by the effects of avian flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, swine flu or another epidemic or outbreak. From 2005 to present, there have been reports on the occurrence of avian flu, SARS or swine flu, including a few confirmed human cases and deaths. Any prolonged occurrence or recurrence of avian flu, SARS, swine flu or other adverse public health developments may have a material adverse effect on our business operations. Our operations may be affected by a number of health-related factors which could severely disrupt our operations, including the sickness or death of our key officers and employees, and a general slowdown in the local or global economy.

 

The public health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures that have been taken or that may be taken in the future by governments, businesses, including us, and the public at large to limit the spread of COVID-19 have had, and could continue to have, an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations in the future. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues for a prolonged period of time or is exacerbated, it could result in the imposition of more restrictive measures in the territories in which we operate, further quarantines or closures, supply-chain disruptions, travel and transportation restrictions and import and export restrictions, which could adversely affect our business. Although we have adopted a number of initiatives to reduce costs in the territories where we operate, including a review of our capital expenditures, the further imposition of social distancing measures and lockdowns could continue to have a negative impact on our financial and operating results.

 

The COVID-19 pandemic has also caused significant volatility in the financial markets, undermining investors’ confidence in the growth of countries and businesses. Currencies in many of the countries where we operate suffered a significant depreciation against the U.S. dollar as compared to December 31, 2019, which increased the cost of some of our development supplies and therefore negatively affected our financial results. In addition, the long-term economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic may include lower or negative growth rates in the markets where we operate and shift to lower margin for our products.

 

We cannot predict how long the COVID-19 pandemic will last, whether it will worsen or whether there will be further outbreaks in the future in any of the markets where we operate. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will negatively affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, the duration of the various shelter-in-place orders and reopening plans, the speed and effectiveness of vaccines and treatment developments and deployment in the countries where we operate, potential mutations of COVID-19, and actions taken, or that may be taken in the future, by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic.

 

In general, our business could be adversely affected by the effects of epidemics, including, but not limited to, COVID-19, avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the influenza A virus, Ebola virus, severe weather conditions such as a snowstorm, flood or hazardous air pollution, or other outbreaks. In response to an epidemic or other outbreaks, government and other organizations may adopt regulations and policies that could lead to severe disruption to our daily operations. These severe conditions may cause us and/or our partners to make internal adjustments, including but not limited to, temporarily closing down businesses, suspending project construction, limiting business hours, and setting restrictions on travel for a prolonged period of time. The effects of a severe condition may cause business disruption, resulting in material, adverse impact to our financial condition and results of operations.

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We operate in a highly competitive market and many of our competitors have greater resources than we do. We may not be able to compete successfully, and we may lose or be unable to gain market share.

 

The solar market is increasingly competitive and continually evolving, which may result in price reductions, reduced profit margins or loss of market share by us. The roll-out of attractive solar energy policies around the globe may make this industry increasingly lucrative and thus intensify the competition by attracting more interested companies. Our primary competitors include local and international developers and operators of solar power projects in those markets. Some of our competitors may have integrated with upstream solar manufacturers and may have advantages over us in terms of greater operational, financial, technical, management or other resources in particular markets or in general. They may have longer operating histories, stronger market positions, larger development capabilities, operation skills, greater resources, better brand name recognition, better access to favorable prices, more established distribution networks and larger customer bases than we do. As a result, they may be able to devote greater resources to the research, development, promotion and sale of their products or respond more quickly to evolving industry standards and changes in market conditions than we can. We only started our solar power projects business in recent years. There is no guarantee that we can compete successfully in the markets where we currently operate or the markets we plan to enter in the future.

 

In addition, in certain of our markets, such as China, state-owned and private companies have emerged to take advantage of the significant market opportunity created by attractive financial incentives and favorable regulatory environment provided by the governments. State-owned companies may have stronger relationships with local governments in certain regions and private companies may be more focused and experienced in developing solar power projects in the markets where we compete. Accordingly, we need to continue to be able to compete against both state-owned and private companies in these markets.

 

Moreover, the key barriers to enter into our industry at present consist primarily of in-depth market knowledge, skilled personnel, consistent development capacity, access to capital resources and competitive cost structure. If these barriers disappear or become more easily surmountable, new competitors may successfully enter our industry. If we fail to compete successfully, our business would suffer, and we may lose or be unable to gain market share.

 

We also earn revenues from generation and sales of electricity. We believe that our primary competitors in these markets are the incumbent utilities companies which supply energy to our potential customers under highly regulated rate and tariff structures. We compete with these conventional utilities primarily based on price, predictability of price, reliability of delivery and the ease with which customers can switch to electricity generated by our solar power projects.

 

As the solar power and renewable energy industry grows and evolves, we will also face new competitors who are not currently in the market. Our competitors may also enter into strategic alliances or form affiliates with other competitors to our detriment. Suppliers or contractors may merge with our competitors which may limit our choices of contractors and hence the flexibility of our overall project execution capabilities. There can be no assurance that our current or potential competitors will not offer solar power projects or services comparable or superior to those that we offer at the same or lower prices or adapt more quickly than we do.

 

We also face competition from other renewable energy companies and non-renewable power industries, including nuclear energy and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. Technological innovations in these other forms of energy may reduce their costs or increase their safety. Large-scale new deposits of fossil fuel may be discovered, which could reduce their costs. Local governments may decide to strengthen their support for other renewable energy sources, such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal and ocean power, and reduce their support for the solar industry. The inability to compete successfully against producers of other forms of power or otherwise enter into power purchase agreements favorable to us would reduce our market share, negatively affect our ability to develop and finance our projects and negatively impact our results of operations.

 

We operate in a highly competitive market. Increased competition may result in price reductions, reduced profit margins and loss of market share. Our market position depends on our financing, development and operation capabilities, reputation, experience and track record. Our failure to adapt to changing market conditions and to compete successfully with existing or new competitors in the solar power industry, as well as the other renewable energy companies and non-renewable power companies, will limit our growth and will have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

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Our limited operating history in solar power projects business may not serve as an adequate basis to judge our future prospects and results of operations.

 

We started our solar power project development business in 2012. We started our IPP business and started to sell electricity in 2013. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Solar Power Projects” for details of our solar power projects. Our historic track record of selling solar power projects or electricity may not be a reliable indicator of our performance and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results and our results of operations for any period should not be relied upon as an indication of our performance for any future period. In particular, our results of operations, financial condition, and future success depend, to a significant extent, on our ability to continue to identify suitable sites, obtain required regulatory approvals, arrange financing from various sources, construct solar power projects in a cost-effective and timely manner, expand our project pipeline and manage and operate solar power projects that we develop. If we cannot do so, we may not be able to expand our business at a profit or at all, maintain our competitive position, satisfy our contractual obligations, or sustain growth and profitability.

 

Our project operations may be adversely affected by weather and climate conditions, natural disasters and adverse work environments.

 

Solar power projects depend on the amount and intensity of sunlight, which is affected by weather and climate conditions. Any change of such conditions in the areas we operate that reduces solar radiation will adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, we may operate in areas that are under the threat of floods, earthquakes, landslides, mudslides, sandstorms, drought, or other inclement weather and climate conditions or natural disasters. If inclement weather or climatic conditions or natural disasters occur in areas where our solar power projects and project teams are located, project development, connectivity to the power grid and the provision of O&M services may be adversely affected. In particular, materials may not be delivered as scheduled and labor may not be available. As many of our solar power projects are located in the same region, such solar power projects may be simultaneously affected by weather and climate conditions, natural disasters and adverse work environments.

 

During periods of curtailed activity, we may continue to incur operating expenses. We may bear some or all of the losses associated with such unforeseen events. Moreover, natural disasters which are beyond our control may adversely affect the economy, infrastructure and communities in the countries and regions where we conduct our business. Such conditions may result in personal injuries or fatalities or have an adverse effect on our work performance, progress and efficiency or even result in personal injuries or fatalities.

 

Seasonal variations may influence our results of operations.

 

Changes in climate, geography, weather patterns, and other phenomena in the regions where we operate may significantly affect our business. For example, solar power projects depend on the amount and intensity of sunlight, which is affected by weather and climate conditions. As a result, our electricity generation and amount of electricity sold and therefore the revenue generated from our IPP business tend to be higher during periods or seasons when there is more irradiation. Seasonal variations could adversely affect our results of operations and make them more volatile and unpredictable.

 

We are subject to counterparty risks under our FIT price support schemes and PPAs.

 

As an IPP, we generate revenue from the sale of electricity primarily pursuant to FIT price support schemes or PPAs, which subject us to counterparty risks with respect to regulatory regimes. Relevant regulatory authorities may retroactively alter their FIT price support regimes in light of changing economic circumstances, changing industry conditions or for any number of other reasons. If the relevant government authorities, the local power grid companies or other counterparties or responsible parties do not perform their obligations under the FIT price support schemes and PPAs and we are unable to enforce our contractual rights, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

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We are subject to numerous laws and regulations at the national, regional and local levels of government in the areas where we do business. Any changes to these regulations and policies may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar projects and solar electricity, which may significantly reduce demand for our products and services or otherwise adversely affect our financial performance.

 

We conduct our business internationally and are subject to a variety of laws and regulations, some of which may conflict with each other and all of which are subject to change, including energy regulations, tax laws and regulations, environmental regulations, labor laws and other government requirements, approvals, permits and licenses.

 

In countries where we do business, the market for solar power projects and solar electricity is heavily influenced by national, state and local government regulations and policies concerning the electric utility industry, as well as policies disseminated by electric utilities. These regulations and policies often relate to electricity pricing and technical interconnection of customer-owned electricity generation, and could deter further investment in the research and development of alternative energy sources as well as customer purchases of solar power technology, which could result in a significant reduction in the potential demand for our solar power projects and solar electricity.

 

Changes in applicable energy laws or regulations, or in the interpretations of these laws and regulations, could result in increased compliance costs or the need for additional capital expenditures. If we fail to comply with these requirements, we could also be subject to civil or criminal liability and the imposition of fines. Further, national, regional or local regulations and policies could be changed to provide for new rate programs that undermine the economic returns for both new and existing projects by charging additional, non-negotiable fixed or demand charges or other fees or reductions in the number of projects allowed under net metering policies. National, regional or local government energy policies, law and regulation supporting the creation of wholesale energy markets is currently, and may continue to be, subject to challenges, modifications and restructuring proposals, which may result in limitations on the commercial strategies available to us for the sale of our power.

 

Regulatory changes in a jurisdiction where we are developing a project may make the continued development of the project infeasible or economically disadvantageous and any expenditure we have made to date on such project may be wholly or partially written off. Any of these changes could significantly increase the regulatory related compliance and other expenses incurred by the projects and could significantly reduce or entirely eliminate any potential revenues that can be generated by one or more of the projects or result in significant additional expenses to us, our offtakers and customers, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We may also face regulatory risks imposed by various transmission providers and operators, including regional transmission operators and independent system operators, and their corresponding market rules. These regulations may contain provisions that limit access to the transmission grid or allocate scarce transmission capacity in a particular manner, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

We are also subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, or the FCPA, and other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in the United States and the countries in which we conduct our business. We face significant liabilities if we fail to comply with the FCPA and other anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws. We may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. For example, in China, we enter into PPAs with local subsidiaries of the State Grid to sell our solar electricity. In other countries where we develop, acquire or sell solar projects, we need to obtain various approvals, permits and licenses from the local or national governments. We can be held liable for the illegal activities of our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. Any violation of the FCPA and other applicable anti-bribery laws and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and reputation. In addition, responding to any enforcement action may result in the diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs and other professional fees.

 

We may fail to comply with laws and regulations in the countries where we develop, construct and operate solar power projects and government approval process may change from time to time, which could severely disrupt our business operations.

 

The development and operation of solar power projects are highly regulated activities. We conduct our business in many countries and jurisdictions and are governed by different laws and regulations, including national and local regulations relating to building codes, taxes, safety, environmental protection, utility interconnection and metering and other matters. We also set up subsidiaries in these countries and jurisdictions which are required to comply with various local laws and regulations. While we strive to work with our local counsel and other advisers to comply with the laws and regulations of each jurisdiction in which we have operations, there may be instances of non-compliance, which may result in fines, sanctions and other penalties against the non-complying subsidiaries and its directors and officers. While we do not believe we have any instances of non-compliance, singularly or in the aggregate, that will have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operation, we cannot assure you that instances of non-compliance will not occur in the future which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operation.

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In order to develop solar power projects we must obtain a variety of approvals, permits and licenses from various authorities. The procedures for obtaining such approvals, permits and licenses vary from country to country, making it onerous and costly to track the requirements of individual localities and comply with the varying standards. Moreover, sovereign states retain the power to adjust their energy policies and alter approval procedures applicable to us. If the regulatory requirements become more stringent or the approval process becomes less efficient, the key steps in our business operations including project development, facility upgrading and product sales, could be severely disrupted or delayed. Failure to obtain the required approvals, permits or licenses or to comply with the conditions associated therewith could result in fines, sanctions, suspension, revocation or non-renewal of approvals, permits or licenses, or even criminal penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any new government regulations pertaining to our business or solar power projects may result in significant additional expenses. We cannot assure you that we will be able to promptly and adequately respond to changes of laws and regulations in various jurisdictions, or that our employees and contractors will act in accordance with such laws. Failure to comply with laws and regulations where we develop, construct and operate solar power projects may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

Restrictive covenants and undertakings under our project financing arrangements and loan arrangements may limit the manner in which we operate and an event of default under the loan may adversely affect our operations.

 

We obtain financing from financial institutions and fund investors globally, as well as financing lease companies in China. These financing arrangements contain certain restrictive covenants that limit our ability to, among other things, (i) dispose of or provide guarantees, pledges or mortgages on our operating assets in any manner that will increase risk to the lenders, (ii) repay shareholders loans or loans from our related parties, (iii) distribute dividends to shareholders, (iv) enter into other financial obligations to third parties, (v) transfer shares, (vi) make investments, and (vii) take part in any mergers or acquisitions. For more information, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.” With our expansion into the downstream solar power projects business, we may continue to incur additional development loans, construction loans and project financing in connection with the solar power projects. Any breach by us of the various undertakings and covenants in our existing or future financing arrangements may give such lenders the right to demand immediate repayment of the outstanding loan amounts. We cannot assure you whether we will be subject to, or be able to fulfill, such undertakings in the future. Any failure to maintain any of the above covenants or undertakings could result in an acceleration of obligations under the facility agreements, which would have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, the breach of any of the covenants and undertakings in any loan agreement may trigger the cross-default provisions in substantially all of our financing arrangements and/or the cross-acceleration provisions in some of those financing arrangements, thereby giving the lenders the right to accelerate our loan repayment obligations. As a result, we are limited in how we conduct our business and may be unable to engage in certain business activities or finance our future operations or capital needs.

 

Failure by our suppliers in supplying us with solar modules, balance-of-system components and other key components needed for our solar power projects in a timely manner, at a favorable price, or with the quantity or quality we require may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any failure by our suppliers in supplying us with solar modules, balance-of-system components and other key components needed for our solar power projects in a timely manner and with the quantity or at the level of pricing we require may adversely and materially impact our ability to fulfill our obligation in producing and delivering solar power projects to our purchasers in accordance with the contracts we entered into with such customers. From time to time, we may be involved in negotiations and disputes with certain suppliers that supply us with solar modules, balance-of-system components and key components needed for our solar power projects with quality defects or regarding quantity and price. Any negotiation or litigation arising out of the disputes with the suppliers could distract management from the day-to-day operation of our business subjects us to potentially significant legal expenses, the forfeiture of our advance payments to our suppliers and interruption of our project development and operations, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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Our advance payments to our suppliers expose us to the credit risk of such suppliers, which may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We typically made advance payments in connection with our procurement agreements for our solar power project business. To the extent that there is collateral and/or security attached to the advance payments, it is uncertain whether the advance payment can be repaid in full upon enforcement on such collateral or security. Any litigation arising out of disputes relating to such prepayments could subject us to potentially significant legal expenses, distract management from the day-to-day operation of our business and expose us to risks for not being able to collect damages awarded to us, all of which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to recover such advance payments and would suffer further losses if any supplier fails to fulfill its delivery obligations under its supply contract, which would include failure to provide sufficient quantity of materials of such quality as specified in the contract or if a supplier’s stock price becomes less than the price agreed to settle to our claim. Claims by us for advance payments or other supplier obligations under the supply contracts in the future may potentially expose us to the credit risks of the suppliers and other market risks and therefore materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We are subject to credit risks of our customers and our trade receivables are relatively large.

 

Our customers may default in their payments to us from time to time. We conduct regular reviews of our credit exposure to our customers. Credit risk arises from events and circumstances beyond our control, and many are difficult to anticipate or detect, such as an overall economic downturn or deterioration in the financial position of our customers. If our customers fail to timely pay us, require us to extend credit to them beyond our customary payment periods or otherwise default on their payments in an amount in excess of any previously paid deposit, we may be unable to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our cash flow requirements, and we would need to make provisions for doubtful debts or incur bad debt write-offs, which may adversely affect our financial performance. Disputes which arise due to default in payment by customers may also incur time and substantial costs in claiming for such payments and thus affect our liquidity, business, financial condition, results of operations and business prospects.

 

Future acquisitions, investments or alliances may have an adverse effect on our business.

 

If we are presented with appropriate opportunities, we may make additional investment into our solar power projects, or acquire or invest in businesses or assets that are strategically important to our business or form alliances with key players in the solar power industry to further expand our business. Such acquisitions and investments could expose us to potential risks, including risks associated with the assimilation of new operations, technologies and personnel, unforeseen or hidden liabilities, the inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset the costs and expenses of acquisitions and potential loss of, or harm to, our relationships with employees, customers and suppliers as a result of the integration of new businesses. We may not be able to maintain a satisfactory relationship with our partners or handle other risks associated with future alliances, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Investments in new businesses may also divert our cash flow from servicing our debt and making necessary capital expenditures. In addition, we may incur impairment losses on our acquisitions and investments in equity securities.

 

We may lack sufficient experience in identifying, financing or completing large investments or acquisitions or joint venture transactions. Such transactions and the subsequent integration processes would require significant attention from our management. In addition, we may expand our business into international markets. In our international expansion, we may face economic, regulatory, legal and political risks inherent in having relationships, operations and sales in other jurisdictions, including challenges caused by distance and linguistic and cultural differences, as well as the potential for longer collection periods and for difficulty in collecting accounts receivable and enforcing contractual obligations. Expansion into new markets may also place significant additional burdens on our senior management and our sales and marketing teams. The diversion of our management’s attention and any difficulties encountered with respect to the acquisitions, investments, alliances, expansion or in the process of integration could have an adverse effect on our ability to manage our business. Any failure to integrate any acquired or new businesses or joint ventures into our operations successfully and any material liabilities or potential liabilities of any acquired businesses or joint ventures that are not identified by us during our due diligence process for such acquisitions or investments could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

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We may experience difficulty in achieving acceptable yields and product performance, or may experience production curtailments or shutdowns.

 

The technology for developing and operating solar power projects is continuously being modified in an effort to improve yields and product performance. Unsuccessful adoption of new processing technologies or malfunctions of the equipment or facilities used can lower yields or increase the silicon consumption rate, cause quality control problems, interrupt production or result in losses of products in process. We may also experience floods, droughts, earthquakes, power losses, labor disputes and similar events within or beyond our control that would affect our operations.

 

Any unplanned transmission line maintenance work with short notices from local electricity transmission line operators may suspend our project developments and operations and limit our ability to fulfill our commitments to customers on a timely basis. Although our technology and equipment are designed to minimize and eliminate the leakage of such waste, unexpected accidents may result in environmental consequences, production curtailments, shutdowns or reduced productions and even cause property damage, personal injury or loss of life. Any such event could result in civil lawsuits or regulatory enforcement proceedings, which in turn could lead to significant liabilities.

 

Advances in solar power project technology could render our projects uncompetitive or obsolete, which could reduce our market share and cause our sales and profit to decline. The solar market is characterized by evolving technology and customer needs. Some of our competitors may devise development technology that enables them to operate the solar power projects with higher quality than our products at a higher yield and lower cost. We will need to invest significant financial resources to maintain our market position, keep pace with technological advances in the solar power industry and effectively compete in the future. Our failure to further refine our technology could cause our products to become uncompetitive or obsolete, which could reduce our market share and cause our revenues to decline. In addition, if we or our customers are unable to manage product transitions, our business and results of operations would be negatively affected.

 

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and key employees, and our business may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

 

Our future success depends substantially on the continued services of our executive officers and key employees. If any of our executive officers or key employees was unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may be unable to replace them easily, in a timely manner, or at all. As such, our business may be severely disrupted, our financial conditions and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected and we may incur additional expenses to recruit, train and retain personnel. If any of our executive officers or key employees joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose customers, suppliers, know-how and key professionals and staff members.

 

Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel, particularly technical personnel with expertise in the solar power industry. Since our industry is characterized by high demand and intense competition for talent, there can be no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain qualified technical staff or other highly skilled employees that we will need to achieve our strategic objectives. As our business has grown rapidly, our ability to train and integrate new employees into our operations may not meet the growing demands of our business. If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, it is typical in the solar industry for highly skilled employees to enter into employment agreements that contain strict non-competition provisions with their employers. If a dispute arises involving our employee, his or her former employer and us, such as a dispute over the violation of non-competition provision or other restrictive covenants, it could result in our loss of such key employee and adversely impact our operation and business. Any prolonged litigation may also result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and adversely impact our business and reputation.

 

Problems with the quality or performance of our developed solar power projects could result in increased costs, damage to our reputation and loss of revenues and market share.

 

In our project development business, substantially all of our purchasers may require us to provide retention money, performance bond or bank guarantee for a certain period of time to secure the quality and performance of our developed solar power projects. During the covered period of time, if any significant defects or efficiency problem arises from sold solar power projects, it may incur additional costs to us for providing remedial measures, divert the attention of our personnel from our operations and cause the retention money to be deducted or forfeited. Similarly, if we fail to maintain the consistent quality of our other solar power projects via effective quality control, it could also cause significant damage to our market reputation, reduce our product sales and market share and adversely affect our results of operations and business.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely impacted.

 

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on the effectiveness of such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report.

 

Although our management didn’t identify any material weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, we may identify such material weakness and deficiencies in the future during the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm has not undertaken a comprehensive assessment of our internal control for purposes of identifying and reporting material weaknesses and other control deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting.

 

Our failure to correct these control deficiencies or our failure to discover and address any other control deficiencies could result in inaccuracies in our financial statements and could also impair our ability to comply with applicable financial reporting requirements and related regulatory filings on a timely basis. As a result, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs, may be materially and adversely affected. Moreover, ineffective internal control over financial reporting significantly hinders our ability to prevent fraud. We may also incur additional costs and use management and other resources in order to comply with Section 404 and remediate the material weakness.

 

If our operational internal control system fails to detect, prevent or remedy risks in our business as intended or if there is any misconduct by our employees in violation of our policies or applicable laws and regulations, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, and our reputation could be severely damaged.

 

We maintain an operational internal control system consisting of an operational internal control department, a whistleblower hotline and other channels for internal reporting, and policies and procedures that are designed to monitor and control potential risk areas relevant to our business operations. However, due to the inherent limitations in the design and implementation of any operational internal control system, we cannot assure you that our operational internal control system will be able to identify, prevent and remedy all risks arising from our business activities as intended or otherwise effectively be implemented, monitored or managed by us. Moreover, we cannot guarantee all of our employees will act in compliance with our employee policies and applicable laws and regulations. Any misconduct or violation by our employees could adversely affect our business and reputation or lead to regulatory sanctions being imposed against us or causing us to incur litigation costs.

 

In addition, starting from 2012, we began to expand our operations into the global energy efficient products and services business and downstream solar power projects. Since September 2017, after the business restructuring, we have transformed into a solar project developer and operator, a pure downstream player with robust pipeline projects around the world. Although we will continue to reassess and seek ways to improve upon our operational internal control system as necessary, the transformation of our business operations may give rise to additional operational internal control risks that are currently unknown to us, despite any efforts to anticipate such risks.

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If our operational internal control system fails to detect risks in our business as intended or to be effectively implemented, monitored and managed, or if we fail to adopt new operational internal control procedures commensurate with our expanding business operations and impact of business restructuring, or if our employees fail to comply with our policies and applicable laws and regulations, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected, and our reputation could be severely damaged.

 

Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights may undermine our competitive position, and litigation to protect our intellectual property rights may be costly.

 

We rely primarily on trade secrets, employee contractual protections and other contractual restrictions to establish and protect our intellectual properties and proprietary rights. Nevertheless, these afford only limited protection and the actions we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate to provide us with meaningful protection or commercial advantage. As a result, third parties may be able to use the technologies that we have developed and compete with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results. In addition, contractual arrangements, such as the confidentiality and non-competition agreements and terms between us and our personnel, afford only limited protection and the actions we may take to protect our trade secrets and other intellectual property may not be adequate. Our failure to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights may undermine our competitive position. Third parties may infringe or misappropriate our proprietary technologies or other intellectual property and proprietary rights. Policing the unauthorized use of proprietary technology can be difficult and expensive. In particular, the laws and enforcement procedures of the PRC and certain other countries are uncertain or do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws and enforcement procedures of the United States. We cannot assure you that we will not be involved in other intellectual property litigations that might adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition in the future. Litigation relating to our intellectual property might result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention away from our business. An adverse determination in any such litigation will impair our intellectual property and proprietary rights and may harm our business, prospects and reputation.

 

We may be exposed to intellectual property infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties which, if determined adversely to us, could cause us to pay significant damage awards.

 

Our success depends largely on our ability to use and develop our technology and know-how without infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties. The validity and scope of claims relating to solar power technology patents involve complex scientific, legal and factual questions and analysis and, therefore, may be highly uncertain. We may be subject to litigation involving claims of patent infringement or violation of intellectual property rights of third parties. The defense and assertion of intellectual property suits, patent opposition proceedings and related legal and administrative proceedings can be both costly and time-consuming and may significantly divert the efforts and resources of our technical and management personnel. An adverse determination in any such litigation or proceedings against us could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties, including requiring us to seek licenses from third parties, to pay ongoing royalties or to pay monetary and punitive damages or subjecting us to injunctions that prohibit the manufacture and sale of our products or the use of our equipment. Protracted litigation could also result in our customers or potential customers deferring or limiting their purchase or use of our products until resolution of such litigation, which could result in losses and adversely affect our results of operations and reputation.

 

Compliance with environmental regulations can be expensive, and non-compliance with these regulations may result in adverse publicity and potentially significant monetary damages and fines.

 

During the construction process of our solar power projects, we may generate noise, wastewater and gaseous and other waste. We are required to comply with all applicable regulations regarding protection of the environment. During our project development process, we often prepare environmental impact assessment reports as part of the permitting process. Once operational, our solar power projects do not generate industrial waste. We are in compliance with present environmental protection requirements in all material respects and have all material environmental permits necessary to conduct our business. However, if more stringent regulations are adopted in the future, the cost of compliance with these new regulations could be substantial. If we fail to comply with present or future environmental regulations, we may be required to pay substantial fines, suspend production or cease operations.

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Increasing environmental concerns and climate change risks associated with fossil fuel-based power generation have created political momentum to implement strategies aimed at the reduction of emissions of carbon dioxide and certain other gases commonly referred to as “greenhouse gases.” Renewable energy sources such as solar power help address these environmental concerns, and governments around the world have implemented a variety of policy initiatives to accelerate the development and adoption of solar power. While passage of climate change legislation or other regulatory initiatives that regulate or restrict emissions of greenhouse gases may encourage use of solar power and accordingly increase demand for our projects and services, this could also cause us to incur additional direct costs in complying with any new environmental regulations during our development and construction processes, as well as increased indirect costs resulting from our customers, suppliers or both incurring additional compliance costs that get passed on to us.

 

Cyber security risks and breaches could adversely affect our business and disrupt our operations.

 

We are subject to cyber security risks and may incur costs to minimize those risks. Cyber security breaches, such as unauthorized access, accidents, employee errors or malfeasance, computer viruses, computer hackings or other disruptions, could compromise the security of our data and infrastructure, thereby exposing such information to unauthorized access by third parties. Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to remedy, protect against or alleviate these and related problems, and we may not be able to remedy these problems in a timely manner, or at all. Any security breaches that occur could disrupt our operations, increase our security costs, or expose us to potential losses due to data corruption or information leakage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Changes in the method for determining the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and the potential replacement of LIBOR may affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The LIBOR benchmark has been subject to national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for calculation of LIBOR after 2021. These reforms may cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past and LIBOR may ultimately cease to exist after 2021 or be unsuitable to use as a benchmark. The consequences of any potential cessation, modification or other reform of LIBOR cannot be predicted at this time. Any new benchmark rate will likely not replicate LIBOR exactly, which could impact new credit facilities and derivative transaction entered into after 2021. We will need to negotiate with the commercial bank to determine an alternative reference rate for our credit facility agreement, which may perform differently than LIBOR. Any changes to benchmark rates could have an impact on our cost of funds and our access to the capital markets, which could impact our results of operations and cash flows.

 

We have limited insurance coverage and may incur losses resulting from product liability claims or business interruptions.

 

As the insurance industry is still developing in China, the product liability insurance and business interruption insurance available in China offer limited coverage compared to that offered in many other countries. We currently maintain property insurance and machine damage insurance for all the projects we operate. We may also maintain other insurances, including commercial general liability insurance, public liability insurance, construction insurance, builder risks insurance, as well as key-man life insurance, director and officer liability insurance, from time to time depending on our financing needs. We do not maintain any insurance for business interruption. Any business disruption or natural disaster could result in substantial costs and a diversion of resources, which would have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

We are exposed to risks associated with product liability claims if the use of our solar power projects results in injury. We cannot predict whether product liability claims will be brought against us in the future or the effect of any resulting negative publicity on our business. The successful assertion of product liability claims against us could result in potentially significant monetary damages and require us to make significant payments.

 

Registered public accounting firms in China, including our independent registered public accounting firm, are not inspected by the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which deprives us and our investors of the benefits of such inspection.

 

Auditors of companies whose shares are registered with the SEC and traded publicly in the United States, including our independent registered public accounting firm, must be registered with the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, and are required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess their compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards applicable to auditors. Our independent registered public accounting firm is located in and organized under the laws of the PRC, which is a jurisdiction where the PCAOB, notwithstanding the requirements of U.S. law, is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities. In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) and the Ministry of Finance of the People’s Republic of China (the “MOF”), which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB, the CSRC or the MOF in the United States and the PRC, respectively. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the MOF to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges. On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. On April 21, 2020, the SEC and the PCAOB issued another joint statement reiterating the greater risk that disclosures will be insufficient in many emerging markets, including China, compared to those made by U.S. domestic companies. In discussing the specific issues related to the greater risk, the statement again highlights the PCAOB’s inability to inspect audit work paper and practices of accounting firms in China, with respect of their audit work of U.S. reporting companies.

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This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ADSs are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

 

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, in December 2020, the United States enacted the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, which includes requirements for the SEC to identify issuers whose audit reports are prepared by auditors that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate because of restrictions imposed by non-U.S. authorities in the auditor’s local jurisdiction. The HFCA Act also requires public companies on this SEC list to certify that they are not owned or controlled by a foreign government and make certain additional disclosures on foreign ownership and control of such issuers in their SEC filings. Furthermore, the HFCA Act amends the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to require the SEC to prohibit securities of any U.S. listed companies from being traded on any of the U.S. national securities exchanges, such as NYSE and Nasdaq Stock Market, or in the U.S. ‘‘over-the-counter’’ markets, if the auditor of the U.S. listed companies’ financial statements is not subject to PCAOB inspections for three consecutive ‘‘non-inspection’’ years after the law becomes effective. On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final amendments to implement the submission and disclosure requirements of the HFCA Act. We will not be required to comply with the interim final amendments until the SEC has identified us as having a ‘‘non-inspection’’ year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act including the identification process and the trading prohibition requirements described above. While the SEC has not yet identified a list of issuers whose auditors are not subject to PCAOB inspections, the first such list could be released in early 2022. Enactment of the HFCA Act, adoption of corresponding SEC rules and other efforts to increase the U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of the ADSs could be adversely affected. We cannot assure you that we will not be identified by the SEC as an issuer whose audit report is prepared by auditors that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate. We cannot assure you that, once we have a ‘‘non-inspection’’ year, we will be able to take remedial measures in a timely manner, and as a result, and we cannot assure you that we will always be able to maintain the listing of our ADSs on a national stock exchange in the U.S., such as the NYSE or the Nasdaq Stock Market, or that you will always be allowed to trade our shares or ADSs.

 

Risks Related to Do Business in China

 

We may fail to comply with laws and regulations regarding the development, construction and operation of solar power projects and solar production projects in China.

 

The development, construction and operation of solar power projects and the generation and sale of solar power are highly regulated activities. The activities in China are governed by different laws and regulations, including national and local regulations relating to renewable energy, urban and rural planning, building codes, safety, environmental protection, fire control, utility transmission, engineering and metering and related matters. We are required to obtain approvals, permits and licenses and we are subject to filings with the provincial and/or regional regulatory authorities, such as the NDRC. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—China—Renewable Energy Law and Other Government Directives.” Any failure to obtain any required approvals, permits, licenses, filings or to comply with the conditions associated therewith could result in fines, sanctions, suspension, revocation or non-renewal of approvals, permits or licenses, or even criminal penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any new government regulations pertaining to solar power projects may result in significant additional expenses to the development, construction and operation of solar power projects and, as a result, could cause a significant reduction in demand for our solar power projects and services.

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We cannot assure you that we will be able to promptly and adequately respond to changes of laws and regulations, or that our employees and contractors will act in accordance with our internal policies and procedures. Failure to comply with laws and regulations where we develop, construct and operate solar power projects may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Adverse changes in political and economic policies of the PRC government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China, which could reduce the demand for our products and materially and adversely affect our competitive position.

 

We have business and sales conducted in China. As the solar industry is highly sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels, it tends to decline during general economic downturns. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are subject to a significant degree to economic, political and legal developments in China. China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past decades, growth has been uneven across different regions and among various economic sectors of China. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic development and guide the allocation of resources. While some of these measures benefit the overall PRC economy, they may also have a negative effect on us. Furthermore, the PRC government may pass measures to tighten credit, including trade financing, available in the PRC market, which could materially impact our financing. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us. As the PRC economy is increasingly intricately linked to the global economy, it is affected in various respects by downturns and recessions of major economies around the world, such as the recent financial services and economic crises of these economies. The various economic and policy measures the PRC government enacts to forestall economic downturns or shore up the PRC economy could affect our business.

 

The PRC economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy. Although the PRC government has implemented measures since the late 1970s emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned by the state-owned enterprises. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Future actions and policies of the PRC government could materially affect our liquidity and access to capital and our ability to operate our business.

 

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us.

 

We are a holding company and we conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries incorporated in China. These subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. The PRC legal system is based on written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since the late 1970s, PRC legislation and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, since the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to us. In addition, any litigation in China may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

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Expiration of, or changes to, current PRC tax incentives that our business enjoys could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

Our solar project SPVs are currently eligible for corporate income tax incentives in China which granted them corporate income tax exemption for the first three years upon generating income and reduced corporate income tax rate at 12.5% for the next three years.

 

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its relevant implementation rules promulgated by National People’s Congress of China and State Council of China which took effect in 2008, enterprises organized under the laws of jurisdictions outside of China with their de facto management bodies located within China may be considered PRC resident enterprises and, therefore, subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their worldwide income. The Implementing Regulation of the Enterprise Income Tax Law defines “de facto management body” as an establishment that exerts substantial overall management and control over the operation, personnel, financial affairs, assets and other aspects of the enterprise. Given the facts that we have operating subsidiaries in China and certain management teams are based in China as well, we may be deemed as a PRC tax resident enterprise and, therefore, subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our worldwide income except that the dividends we received from our PRC subsidiaries may be exempt from the enterprise income tax to the extent that such dividends are deemed as dividends among PRC resident enterprises. If our current tax benefits expire or otherwise become unavailable to us for any reason, our profitability may be materially or adversely affected.

 

In addition, all of our PRC subsidiaries are required to pay value added tax, or VAT, with respect to their respective gross sales proceeds.

 

Our ability to make distributions and other payments to our shareholders depends to a significant extent upon the distribution of earnings and other payment made by our subsidiaries.

 

We conduct our business in China through our subsidiaries. Our ability to make distributions or other payments to our shareholders depends on payments primarily from ReneSola (Zhejiang) PV Power Co., Ltd. (“ReneSola PV Power”). The payment of dividends by entities organized in China is subject to limitations. Regulations in the PRC currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations in China. However, subsequent to January 1, 2008, there had been no such dividend distribution to us since such earnings will permanently be used to reinvest to the PRC entities. Pursuant to the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China and the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China, ReneSola PV Power is also required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profit, if any, to fund certain statutory reserve funds until the accumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. ReneSola PV Power is also required to allocate a portion of its after-tax profits, as determined by its board of directors, to its discretion accumulation reserves, which may not be distributed to equity owners. In addition, when ReneSola PV Power incurs debt on its own behalf, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us.

 

Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, dividends payable by us and gains on the disposition of our shares or ADSs could be subject to PRC taxation.

 

Pursuant to the new PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its Implementing Regulation, which became effective on January 1, 2008, a 10% withholding tax applies to dividends, interests, rent or royalties payable by a foreign-invested enterprise, suchas our PRC subsidiary, to any of its non-resident enterprises investors for PRC enterprise income tax purposes unless any such non-resident enterprise’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for a different withholding arrangement. The British Virgin Islands, where our company was incorporated, does not have such a treaty with China. Thus, we expect that a 10% withholding tax will apply to dividends paid to us by our PRC subsidiaries if we are classified as a non-resident enterprise. Circular CaiShui [2008] No.1 jointly issued by the PRC State Administration of Taxation and Minister of Finance on February 22, 2008 further clarifies that dividends distributed by foreign-invested enterprise to foreign investors out of the profits generated before January 1, 2008 are still exempt from withholding tax even if they are paid after January 1, 2008. Our PRC entities’ undistributed earnings, generated after January 1, 2008, will not be distributed to us since such earnings will permanently be used to reinvest to the PRC entities. Therefore, no dividend withholding tax was accrued.

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Pursuant to the Notice on Widening the Scope of Application of Temporary Waiver for Withholding Income Tax for Overseas Investors Using Distributed Profits for Direct Investments (Cai Shui [2018] No. 102), for domestic direct investment by an overseas investor using distributed profits from domestic resident enterprises, the withholding tax could be deferred if certain criteria are satisfied and application procedures fulfilled.

 

We are incorporated in the British Virgin Islands. Under the new PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its Implementing Regulation, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with “de facto management bodies” within the PRC is considered a PRC resident enterprise. The Implementing Regulation defines the term “de facto management bodies” as “establishments that carry out substantial and overall management and control over the manufacturing and business operations, personnel, accounting, properties, etc. of an enterprise.” Given that we have operating subsidiaries and certain management members in China, we may be considered a PRC resident enterprise. If we are determined to be a PRC resident enterprise following the “de facto management bodies” concept, our shareholders and ADS holders who are deemed non-resident enterprise may be subject to the new PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law at the rate of 10% upon the dividends paid by us or the gains on the disposition of our shares or ADSs; similarly, our noteholders who are deemed non-resident enterprise may be subject to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law at the rate of 10% upon the interest of the notes paid by us and the gains realized on the conversion, sale, exchange or redemption of such notes.

 

Fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

 

Our sales in China are denominated in Renminbi, and our international sales are generally denominated in U.S. dollars, Euros, British pounds and other local currencies. Our costs and capital expenditures are largely denominated in Renminbi and foreign currencies, including U.S. dollars and Euros. Fluctuations in exchange rates could affect our net profit margins and could result in foreign exchange and operating gains or losses. In addition, our foreign currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currencies.

 

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar, the Euros, British pounds and other currencies is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions and China’s foreign exchange policies. In the long term, Renminbi may further depreciate against U.S. dollar or other foreign currencies, depending on the market supply and demand with reference to a basket of currencies. It is difficult to predict how long this current situation may last and when and how it may change again.

 

In addition, although we have not received any dividend from our operating subsidiaries in China since 2008, we may receive such dividends in the future. Any significant depreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar may have a material adverse effect on our revenues and financial condition, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, our shares. For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our shares or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us. As a proportion of our revenue is paid to us in Euros and British pounds, fluctuation between the Euros and the Renminbi as well as British pounds and the Renminbi may also have a material effect on our results of operations.

 

Restrictions on currency exchange may limit our ability to receive and use our revenues or financing effectively.

 

A portion of our revenues and expenses are denominated in Renminbi. If our revenues denominated in Renminbi increase or expenses denominated in Renminbi decrease in the future, we may need to convert a portion of our revenues into other currencies to meet our foreign currency obligations, including, among others, payment of dividends declared, if any, in respect of our shares or ADSs. Under China’s existing foreign exchange regulations, our PRC subsidiary, Renesola PV Power is able to pay dividends in foreign currencies, without prior approval from State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not take further measures in the future to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions.

 

Foreign exchange transactions by Renesola PV Power under capital accounts continue to be subject to significant foreign exchange controls and require the approval of or registration with PRC governmental authorities or the institution being delegated. In particular, if Renesola PV Power borrows foreign currency loans from us or other foreign lenders, these loans must be registered with SAFE and if we finance by means of additional capital contributions, these capital contributions must be approved or registered by certain government authorities including the PRC Ministry of Commerce and the State Administration for Market Regulation, or their local counterparts, and registered with the bank as delegated by SAFE. These limitations could affect the ability of Renesola PV Power to conduct foreign exchange transactions in China and could affect our business and financial condition.

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If we are required to obtain the prior approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission for the listing and trading of our ADSs on the NYSE, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions which may adversely affect our financial condition.

 

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including the CSRC, promulgated the Provisions on Merger and Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors that became effective on September 8, 2006 and were amended on June 22, 2009. This regulation, among other things, has provisions that purport to require that an offshore special purpose vehicle, or SPV, formed for listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by PRC companies or individuals shall obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such SPV’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published on its official website procedures specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by SPVs seeking CSRC approval of their overseas listings.

 

We completed the listing of our ADSs on the NYSE in January 2008 and completed our follow-on offerings in June 2008, October 2009 and September 2013. We did not seek CSRC approval in connection with our initial public offering or our follow-on offerings. However, the application of this PRC regulation remains unclear with no consensus currently existing among the leading PRC law firms regarding the scope and applicability of the CSRC approval requirement. Our PRC counsel at the time of listing advised us that because we completed our restructuring for the initial public offering before September 8, 2006, the effective date of the new regulation, it was not and is not necessary for us to submit the application to the CSRC for its approval, and the listing of our ADSs on the NYSE did not require CSRC approval.

 

If the CSRC or another PRC regulatory agency subsequently determines that CSRC approval was required for the initial public offering or the follow-on offerings, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in the PRC, limit our operating privileges in the PRC, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from our initial public offering and the follow-on offerings into the PRC or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ADSs.

 

If the CSRC later requires that we obtain its approval, we may be unable to obtain a waiver of the CSRC approval requirements if and when procedures are established to obtain such a waiver. Any uncertainties and/or negative publicity regarding this CSRC approval requirement could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our ADSs.

 

PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident shareholders to personal liability and limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our subsidiary’s ability to increase its registered capital, distribute profits to us, or otherwise adversely affect us.

 

In May 2013, SAFE issued the Notice regarding Printing and Distributing the Provisions on Foreign Exchange Administration over Direct Investment Made by Foreign Investors in China and the Supporting Documents, or Notice 21, which provides detailed disclosure requirements and examination standards for SAFE registration of foreign investors (including overseas SPVs established by PRC residents) with respect to their establishment of foreign investment enterprises or projects in China.

 

In July 2014, SAFE released the Notice on Simplifying Certain Matters Related to the Foreign Exchange Administration Over the Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investments by Domestic Residents Via Special Purpose Vehicles, or Notice 37.

 

According to these regulations, registration with the local SAFE branch is required for PRC residents to establish or to control an offshore company for the purpose of investment and financing by utilizing the domestic or overseas assets or equity they legally hold. PRC residents should register their initial foreign exchange at the time when they contribute their domestic or overseas assets and interests into the SPVs. Notice 21 imposes additional SAFE registration responsibilities for such SPVs’ direct investments in China.

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Moreover, as Notice 37 applies retroactively, PRC residents who had made capital contributions to SPVs based on their lawful domestic or overseas assets or interests but did not go through overseas investment foreign exchange registration formalities prior to the implementation of Notice 37 should provide their local SAFE branch with written explanations regarding their failure to do so, and the local SAFE branch will conduct registration retrospectively based on the principle of legality and reasonableness. For more details of Notice 37, see “Item 4. Information of the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation—China—Regulation of Foreign Currency Exchange and Dividend Distribution—Dividend Distribution.”

 

We have urged our shareholders who are PRC residents to make the necessary applications and filings as required under these regulations. To our knowledge, our principal shareholders have completed the necessary filings as required under these regulations. In addition, according to rules issued by SAFE, if a PRC resident participates in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly-listed company, a qualified PRC domestic agent must, among other things, file on behalf of such participant an application with SAFE to conduct the SAFE registration with respect to such stock incentive plan. We have made filings with the local SAFE branch of Jiashan County in connection with the options we granted to our PRC employees under our 2007 share incentive plan, as amended and restated in January 2009, August 2010, August 2012 and August 2016, or the 2007 share incentive plan, but were told that such registration is not required for now. We will make such filing and registration in accordance with the rules issued by SAFE if required by local SAFE branch. We attempt to comply and attempt to ensure that our shareholders who are subject to these rules comply with the relevant requirements. However, we cannot provide any assurances that all of our shareholders who are PRC residents will comply with our request to make or obtain any applicable registrations, amend the existing registrations or comply with other requirements required by Notice 37 or other related rules. The failure or inability of our PRC resident shareholders to make any required registrations or comply with other requirements may subject such shareholders to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into or provide loans to our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute profits to us, or otherwise adversely affect us.

 

Greater restrictions on global trade, particularly those related to China-U.S. trade relations, and recent human rights claims against China could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

Our business operations are exposed to the risk of increased trade protectionism, particularly with regard to China, as a significant portion of our business originates from China. China’s import and export of goods and services may be affected by trade protectionism, specifically the ongoing trade war characterized by perpetual trade tensions between the United States and China as well as trade relations among other countries. The former U.S. administration had advocated greater restrictions on trade generally and significant increases on tariffs on certain goods imported into the United States, particularly from China and had taken steps toward restricting trade in certain goods. The United States has imposed significant amounts of tariffs on Chinese imports since 2018. China and other countries have retaliated in response to new trade policies, treaties and tariffs implemented by the United States. China has imposed significant tariffs on U.S. imports since 2018. While the Biden administration is regarded by many as more supportive of free trade than its predecessor, there have been no signs that U.S. tariffs imposed on China will be eliminated any time soon. The continuing trade war between the United States and China may have a material adverse effect on our business as we have a significant presence in both countries. Our development and production efforts may be severely disrupted and the costs of our products and services may climb up, which could in turn lead to a dramatic decrease in our operating incomes and profits.

 

The stumbling relationship between western countries and China is not only featured by trade tensions but also more broadly defined geopolitical competition. The two sides have fiercely exchanged their conflicting understandings of human rights protection and rebuked each other for falling behind internationally recognized standards in that regard. Despite that both those western countries and China have expressed their willingness to manage conflicts and/or seek re-engagement, the direction along which the interstate relationship will head towards is subject to great uncertainty. If western countries and China slide into a vicious circle of political boycott and economic disengagement, the global economy is likely to take a hit and the transboundary supply chain that anchors the modern economy may lapse into disarray. As a multinational company, our business development and operating performance are largely dependent on the maintenance of world peace and stability which is, however, well beyond our control.

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Risks Related to Doing Business in International Markets Outside of China

 

Our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected by developments that are beyond our control in other countries.

 

Our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows depend partially on the level of economic activity, government and foreign exchange policies and political and economic developments in our other principal targeted international markets outside of China, such as United States, Canada, Poland, Hungary, Spain, France, UK and Romania. Our business, revenues and prospects, as well as our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the market price of our ADSs, may also be materially and adversely affected by developments in international markets relating to inflation, interest rates, currency fluctuations, government subsidies, taxation, expropriation, as well as any protectionism, exchange control regulations, price and wage controls, social instability or other political, economic or diplomatic developments. We have no control over these conditions and developments which could adversely affect us and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows or the price or market of our ADSs. See additional risks in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.”

 

Risks Related to Our ADSs, Warrants and Shares

 

The market price for our ADSs may be volatile; the value of the warrants could be significantly affected by the market price of the ADSs and other factors.

 

The market price for our ADSs has been highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. During the period from January 29, 2008, the first day on which our ADSs were listed on the NYSE, until April 13, 2021, the market price of our ADSs ranged from $0.85to $147.4 per ADS, after giving effect to the ADS Ratio Change. In more recent years, the market price of our ADSs went up at a relatively rapid rate, rising from $1.415 (closing price) as of December 31, 2019 to $11.43 (closing price) as of December 31, 2020. We cannot assure you that our share prices will not suffer from a dramatic drop in the future. If that happens, both our business operations and your interests may be adversely and materially affected. In addition, the market price of our ADSs may continue to be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to a wide variety of factors including the following:

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;

 

our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;

 

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;

 

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other solar power companies;

 

changes in investors’ and analysts’ perceptions of our industry, business or related industries;

 

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;

 

announcements by us or our competitors of new products, patent litigation, issuance of patents, acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

technological breakthroughs in the solar and other renewable energy industries;

 

reduction, modification, delay or elimination of government subsidies and other economic incentives for the solar power industry;

 

regulatory developments in our target markets affecting us, our customers or our competitors;

 

potential litigation or administrative investigations;

 

addition or departure of key personnel;

 

fluctuations of exchange rates between the RMB and U.S. dollar, Euro or other foreign currencies;

 

sales or anticipated sales of additional ADSs;

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release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding ADSs or shares or sales of additional ADSs;

 

the operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies;

 

general market conditions, fluctuations or other developments affecting us or our industry; and

 

general economic conditions and conditions in the credit markets.

 

You should note that the stock prices of solar power companies have experienced wide fluctuations. Such wide market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs. The market price of the ADSs will likely continue to fluctuate in response to the factors discussed above, many of which are beyond our control.

 

In addition, the securities market has from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. Such fluctuations have occurred since 2008 and have affected the trading price of our ADSs. Continued market fluctuations may materially and adversely affect the market price of our ADSs.

 

Our existing principal shareholders have substantial influence over our company, and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other shareholders.

 

Mr. Xianshou Li, our previous chairman and previous chief executive officer, beneficially owned 26.0% of our shares as of March 31, 2021. Meanwhile, Mr. Zhengmin Lian holds 29.3% of the voting power in our company via the 180,000,000 shares held by ReneSola Singapore Pte Ltd. which is in turn beneficially owned by Mr. Xianshou Li. As such, Mr. Li and Mr. Lian have substantial influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the price of our ADSs. For example, holders of a majority of our shares entitled to vote in a duly convened and constituted shareholders’ meeting may pass a shareholders’ resolution to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix the powers and rights of these shares, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights associated with our existing shares. Preferred shares could thus be issued with terms that would delay or prevent a change in control or make removal of management more difficult. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders and holders of our ADSs.

 

We may need additional capital and may sell additional ADSs or other equity, equity-linked or debt securities or incur indebtedness, which could result in additional dilution to our shareholders or increase our debt service obligations.

 

We require a significant amount of cash to fund our operations due to changed business conditions or other future developments, including any investments or acquisitions we may decide to pursue, and repay our outstanding debt. We may issue additional equity, equity-linked or debt securities, or obtain a credit facility for a number of reasons, including to finance our operations and business strategy, to satisfy our obligations for the repayment of existing indebtedness, or for other reasons. Any future issuances of equity securities or equity-linked securities could further dilute the interests of our shareholders and may materially adversely affect the price of our ADSs. We cannot predict the timing or size of any future issuances or sales of equity, equity-linked or debt securities, or the effect, if any, that such issuances or sales may have on the market price of our ADSs. We also cannot be sure that we will not need to raise additional capital in the future as a result of continuing or worsening economic conditions or otherwise. Market conditions could require us to accept less favorable terms for the issuance of our securities in the future, which may result in the issuance of securities that have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of the shares and ADSs. The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased debt service obligations and could result in operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. We cannot assure you that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

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Future issuances of shares or ADSs may adversely affect the price of the ADSs.

 

We may from time to time access the capital market to raise capital. In addition, we have reserved our shares and ADSs for the holders’ exercise of our share options which are granted pursuant to our 2007 share incentive plan. All ADSs sold in our initial public offering and the follow-on offerings are freely transferable without restriction or additional registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. The remaining ADSs outstanding after the initial public offering and the follow-on offerings are currently available for sale, subject to volume and other restrictions as applicable under Rule 144 and Rule 701 of the Securities Act. The issuance and sale of a substantial number of shares or ADSs, or the perception that such issuances and sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of the shares or ADSs and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

 

As a holder of our ADSs, you may not have the same voting rights as the holders of our shares and may not receive voting materials in time to be able to exercise your right to vote.

 

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our shareholders and may only exercise the voting rights with respect to the underlying shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. When a general meeting is convened, ADS holders may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit such holders to withdraw their shares to allow them to cast their vote with respect to any specific matter. If requested in writing by us, the depositary will mail a notice of such a meeting to ADS holders. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to ADS holders or carry out ADS holders’ voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to ADS holders in a timely manner. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast, or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholder meeting.

 

The depository for our ADSs may give us a discretionary proxy to vote our shares underlying your ADSs if you do not give voting instructions, which could adversely affect your interests.

 

Under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, if we asked for your instructions but the depositary does not receive your instructions by the cutoff date it sets, the depositary will give us a discretionary proxy to vote the shares underlying your ADSs as to all matters at the shareholders’ meeting unless:

 

we instructed the depositary we do not wish to receive a discretionary proxy;

 

we informed the depositary that there is substantial opposition to the particular matter; or

 

the particular matter would have a material adverse impact on shareholders.

 

The effect of this discretionary proxy is that if you do not give voting instructions, you cannot prevent the shares underlying your ADSs from being voted, except in the circumstances described above. This arrangement may make it more difficult for shareholders to influence the management of our company. Holders of our shares are not subject to this discretionary proxy.

 

You may not be able to participate in rights offerings and may experience dilution of your holdings as a result.

 

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to ADS holders in the United States unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Also, under the deposit agreement for the ADSs, the depositary will not offer those rights available to ADS holders unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act or exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. In addition, we may not be able to take advantage of any exemptions from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, in the event we conduct any rights offering in the future, the depositary may not make such rights available to holders of ADSs or may dispose of such rights and make the net proceeds available to such holders. As a result, holders of our ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in their holdings.

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You may be subject to limitations on transfer of your ADSs.

 

Your ADSs represented by the ADRs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books from time to time when it deems that it is expedient for the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deem it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

 

If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of our ADSs or shares, such person may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

 

If a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ADSs or ordinary shares, such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” in the Company’s group. Where the Company’s group includes one or more U.S. subsidiaries, in certain circumstances we could be treated as a controlled foreign corporation and certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries could be treated as controlled foreign corporations (regardless of whether we are or are not treated as a controlled foreign corporation). A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to annually report and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and investments in U.S. property by controlled foreign corporations, whether or not we make any distributions. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. A failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject a United States shareholder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent starting of the statute of limitations with respect to such shareholder’s U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due. We do not intend to monitor whether we or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries are treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether any investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to us or any of our subsidiaries or to furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. A United States investor should consult its own advisor regarding the potential application of these rules in its particular circumstances.

 

We may be a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ADSs or shares.

 

We will be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year if, applying applicable look-through rules, either (i) at least 75% of our gross income for such year is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of our assets (generally determined based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets) during such year is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. A separate determination must be made after the close of each taxable year as to whether we were a PFIC for that year. Based on the market price of our ADSs, the value of our assets, and the composition of our income and assets, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2020, but there can be no assurances in this regard. The determination of PFIC status involves extensive factual investigation, including ascertaining the fair market value of all of our assets on a quarterly basis and the character of each item of income that we earn, and is subject to uncertainty in several respects. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, will agree with any positions that we take or that we will not be treated as a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2020, the current taxable year or any future taxable year.

 

Changes in the composition of our income or composition of our assets may cause us to be or become a PFIC. The determination of whether we will be a PFIC for any taxable year may depend in part upon the value of our goodwill and other unbooked intangibles not reflected on our balance sheet (which may depend upon the market price of our ADSs or shares from time to time, which may fluctuate significantly) and also may be affected by how, and how quickly, we spend our liquid assets and the cash we generate from our operations and raise in any offering. In estimating the value of our goodwill and other unbooked intangibles, we have taken into account our market capitalization. Among other matters, if our market capitalization declines, we may be or become a PFIC for the current or future taxable years because our liquid assets and cash (which are for this purpose considered assets that produce passive income) may then represent a greater percentage of our overall assets. Further, while we believe our classification methodology and valuation approach are reasonable, it is possible that the IRS may challenge our classification or valuation of our goodwill and other unbooked intangibles, which may result in our being or becoming a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2020, the current taxable year or one or more future taxable years.

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If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Taxation”) holds an ADS or a share, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Taxation—Passive foreign investment company.”

 

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through the U.S. federal courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under British Virgin Islands law, conduct some of our operations in China and Europe, and some of our officers and directors reside outside the United States.

 

We are incorporated in the British Virgin Islands and conduct substantially all of our operations in China, United States and Europe through our wholly owned subsidiary in these regions. Some of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States, and some or all of the assets of those persons are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an original action against us or against these individuals in a British Virgin Islands or China court in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors, some of whom are not residents of the United States and the majority of whose assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the British Virgin Islands or the PRC would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state. There is no statutory recognition in the British Virgin Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the British Virgin Islands will generally recognize and enforce a non-penal judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits. It is uncertain whether such British Virgin Islands or PRC courts would be competent to hear original actions brought in the British Virgin Islands or the PRC against us or such persons predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state.

 

Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association and by the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004 and common law of the British Virgin Islands. The rights of shareholders to take legal action against our directors and us, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under British Virgin Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the British Virgin Islands. The common law of the British Virgin Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the British Virgin Islands as well as from the common law in England and other countries in the Commonwealth, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the British Virgin Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under British Virgin Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedents in the United States. In particular, the British Virgin Islands has no securities laws as compared to the United States and provides significantly less protection to investors. In addition, British Virgin Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action before the federal courts of the United States.

 

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulties in protecting their interests through actions against our management, directors or major shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.

 

Our ADSs may not comply with the minimum listing requirements of the NYSE and may therefore be subject to delisting if we are not able to regain compliance within the prescribed timeframe.

 

Our ADSs are currently listed on the NYSE. The NYSE has minimum requirements that a company must meet in order to remain listed on the NYSE. These requirements include maintaining a minimum average closing price of $1.00 per ADSover a period of consecutive 30 trading days and an average market capitalization of not less than $50 million over a 30 trading day period and stockholders’ equity of not less than $50 million. On November 7, 2016, we received a notice from the NYSE that the average closing price of our ADSs (prior to the ADS Ratio Change) was below the listing requirements. In order to bring the price of the ADSs into compliance with the listing requirements, we executed the ADS Ratio Change. As a result, effective from February 10, 2017, the number of our shares represented by each ADS has been changed from two shares to 10 shares. On March 1, 2017, we received a notice from the NYSE that a calculation of the average closing price of our ADSs for the 30-trading days ended February 28, 2017 indicated that the average closing price of our ADSs was above the minimum requirement of $1.00 based on a 30-trading day average. Accordingly, we have resumed compliance with all NYSE continued listing requirements.

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On July 26, 2017, we received another notice from the NYSE that the total market capitalization and the stockholders’ equity were below the listing requirements. In order to regain compliance, we conducted a non-cash restructuring to dispose of substantially all of the assets and liabilities related to our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business, such that we could dispose of our asset-heavy and debt-heavy businesses and focus on our asset-light and high-margin project business. The disposition was completed in September 2017. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—B. Related Party Transactions—Transaction with our Chief Executive Officer and ReneSola Singapore Pte. Ltd.” for details. On October 24, 2017, we submitted a business plan to the NYSE to demonstrate our plan to regain compliance within the continued listing requirements of the NYSE. On December 7, 2017, the NYSE accepted our business plan and recognized that we were trading at levels in excess of $50 million average market capitalization. We resumed compliance with all NYSE continued listing requirements and the NYSE will continue to perform quarterly reviews during the 18 months from the date of the NYSE notice on July 26, 2017. On January 3, 2018, we provided the NYSE with an updated analysis of our third quarter 2017 progress and the plan submission and it was accepted by the NYSE on January 26, 2018.

 

On September 9, 2019, we received a notice from the NYSE again that we did not meet the NYSE’s criteria for continued listing standard because the average closing price of the Company’s ADSs was less than US$1.00 per ADS over a consecutive 30-trading-day period. On October 1, 2019, we received a confirmation from the NYSE that we had regained compliance with continued listing standards after the average closing price for our ADSs for the consecutive 30-trading-day period ended September 30, 2019 exceeded US$1.00.

 

We cannot assure you that we will maintain compliance with all the NYSE’s continued listing requirements. If we were unable to regain compliance with the minimum share price within the prescribed timeframe or if we are unable to maintain compliance with any of the NYSE’s continued listing requirements in the future, our ADSs would be subject to delisting. A delisting of our ADSs could negatively impact us by, among other things, reducing the liquidity and market price of our ADSs; reducing the number of investors willing to hold or acquire our ADSs, which could negatively impact our ability to raise equity financing; decreasing the amount of news and analyst coverage for us; and limiting our ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future. By complying the NYSE’s listing requirements will enable our business gains worldwide audience through NYSE’s platform and improved reputation with potential customers.

 

ITEM 4.INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

A.History and Development of the Company

 

Prior to our business restructuring in September 2017, the Company’s business was initially operated through its former subsidiary ReneSola Zhejiang Energy Co., Ltd., whose predecessor Zhejiang Fengding Construction Material Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd., or Fengding Construction, was established as a limited liability company in the PRC in 2003. Following a series of share transfers, Fengding Construction was renamed as ReneSola Zhejiang Energy Co., Ltd. in June 2005 and commenced the solar power business in July 2005.

 

ReneSola Ltd was incorporated as a limited liability company in the British Virgin Islands on March 17, 2006. Our choice of the British Virgin Islands as the jurisdiction of incorporation was motivated in part by its relatively well-developed body of corporate law, various taxes and other incentives, and its acceptance among internationally recognized securities exchanges as a jurisdiction of incorporation for companies seeking to list securities on such exchanges. As we are a limited liability company under the laws of the British Virgin Islands, the liability of our shareholders to our company is limited to (i) any amount unpaid on a share held by the shareholder and (ii) any liability to repay a distribution by our company that was not made in accordance with the laws of the British Virgin Islands. Our principal executive offices are located at 3rd floor, 850 Canal St, Stamford, CT 06902, U.S.A.. Our telephone number is + 1 (347) 577-9055 x115 . Our registered office is located at the offices of Harneys Corporate Services Limited, Craigmuir Chambers, P.O. Box 71, Road Town, Tortola, VG1110, British Virgin Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is CT Corporation System, located at 111 Eighth Avenue, New York, New York 10011.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we conduct our business primarily through the following subsidiaries:

 

Renesola (Zhejiang) PV Power Co., Ltd.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in China in August 2017 to hold our Chinese subsidiaries.

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Zhejiang ReneSola Investment Ltd.: our subsidiary incorporated in China in February 2015 to engage in trading and investments in solar industry, as well as holding our project companies in China.

 

ReneSola New Energy S.à r.l.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in Luxembourg in March 2012 to engage in trading and investments in solar industry, as well as holding our solar power projects in Europe and Canada;

 

ReneSola Investment Management Ltd.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in the British Virgin Islands in December 2014 to engage in investments in solar industry, as well as holding our solar power projects;

 

Sichuan Bobo Electric Power Engineering Ltd.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in China in January 2017 to conduct EPC business;

 

ReneSola Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in China in August 2017 to engage in project management and technology support;

 

ReneSola Power Holdings LLC.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in the United States to engage in trading and investments in solar industry, as well as holding our solar power projects in the United States;

 

ReneSola Power Canada: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in Canada in October 2017 to conduct solar power project development business;

 

Renesola Poksla sp. z o.o.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in Poland in July 2015 to conduct EPC business; and

 

Renesola Szolgáltató és Kivitelező Kft.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in Hungary in December 2017 to conduct EPC business;

 

Renesolapower France:our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in France in October 2017 to conduct solar power project development business;

 

RENESOLA SPAIN S.L.: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in Spain in June 2017 to conduct solar power project development business;

 

Renesola Power UK LTD: our wholly owned subsidiary incorporated in the UK in August 2015 to conduct solar power project development business;

 

For our organization structure as of the date of this annual report, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure.”

 

In January 2008, we and certain selling shareholders completed our initial public offering of 2,000,000 ADSs, representing 20,000,000 of our shares, on the NYSE.

 

Our board of directors authorized the ADS Ratio Change in January 2017. Effective from February 10, 2017, the number of our shares represented by each ADS has been changed from two shares to 10 shares. For our ADS holders, this ADS Ratio Change had the same effect as a one-for-five reverse split. No new shares were issued in connection with the ADS Ratio Change. Our ADSs continue to be traded on the NYSE under the symbol “SOL.” The ADS Ratio Change did not reduce any ADS holder’s percentage ownership interest in us, except for minor adjustments that may result from the treatment of fractional ADSs. Proportionate voting rights and other rights and preferences of the ADS holders were not reduced by the ADS Ratio Change, subject to the treatment of fractional ADSs.

 

On July 26, 2017, we received a notice from the NYSE that the total market capitalization and the stockholders’ equity were below the listing requirements. In order to regain the compliance, we conducted a non-cash restructuring to dispose of substantially all of the assets and liabilities related to our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business, such that we could dispose of our asset-heavy and debt-heavy businesses and focus on our asset-light and high-margin project business. On October 24, 2017, we submitted a business plan to the NYSE to demonstrate our plan to regain compliance within the continued listing requirements of the NYSE. On December 7, 2017, the NYSE accepted our business plan and recognized that we were trading at levels in excess of $50 million average market capitalization. We resumed compliance with all NYSE continued listing requirements and the NYSE will continue to perform quarterly reviews during the 18 months from the date of the NYSE notice on July 26, 2017. On January 3, 2018, we provided the NYSE an update analyzing our third quarter 2017 progress and the plan submission, and it was accepted by the NYSE on January 26, 2018.

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In September 2017, the disposition of substantially all of the assets and liabilities related to our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business, was completed.

 

Prior to our business restructuring in September 2017, our capital expenditures were used primarily to optimize and maintain our Sichuan polysilicon factory, our cell and module manufacturing plant in Yixing, Jiangsu Province, to purchase production equipment, to acquire land-use rights for each of the plants and to build up our solar power product business and solar power projects business. After the completion of the business restructuring, our capital expenditures have been used primarily for our solar power projects business. For details of our capital expenditures, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures.”

 

In October 2019, we issued and sold to Shah Capital Opportunity Fund LP (“Shah”) 100,000,000 newly issued ordinary shares at a price of US$0.11 per Share, for a total consideration of US$11.0 million. The newly issued shares are subject to a 180 day lockup period. Net proceeds from the transaction are intended to be used to expand our global project development activities.

 

During 2020, we raised $45 million from the public market. The capital was and will be used to expand our solar project pipeline and penetrate the solar-plus-storage market, as well as for working capital and potential strategic M&A opportunities. We believe that these capital infusions will enable us to execute our long-term strategic growth plan as we continue our transformation into an asset-light solar project developer.

 

B.Business Overview

 

After the completion of our business restructuring in September 2017, we have become a solar project developer and operator, a pure downstream player with robust pipeline projects around the world. We develop and sell solar power projects or sell project SPVs (project development business), and own and operate solar power projects and sell the electricity generated by our operated solar power plants (IPP business).

 

In 2020, we continued our multi-year transformation from money-losing equipment maker to money-making and asset-light solar project developer. We switched our long-term growth strategy from focusing on our traditional market in China to a global expansion roadmap. We now primarily focus on the promising markets in the United States and Europe. We already obtained a leading market share in Poland and Hungary, as well as some states in the United States such as Minnesota and New York. We moved our headquarters to Connecticut, the United States where our senior management team will be based going forward.

 

In addition, we successfully recruited a new management team with tremendous industry insights and experiences that we believe will contribute to our long-term growth following our global expansion strategy. We appointed Mr. Yumin Liu as the chief executive officer. Mr. Liu brings to us more than 20 years of experience in energy management, power generation and solar technology sectors. Before joining us, he was a highly successful and prominent executive at Canadian Solar Inc., a leading global manufacturer of solar photovoltaic modules and provider of solar energy solutions. We appointed Mr. Ke Chen as our chief financial officer. Mr. Chen has over 13 years of experience in the global capital markets, including vast investment experiences in solar industry in China. He is aligned with one of our largest shareholders, Shah Capital, and is highly incentivized to drive shareholder-friendly disclosure and outreach policies.

 

During 2020, we raised $45 million from the public market. The capital was and will be used to expand our solar project pipeline and penetrate the solar-plus-storage market, as well as for working capital and potential strategic M&A opportunities. We believe that these capital infusions will enable us to execute our long-term strategic growth plan as we continue our transformation into an asset-light solar project developer.

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As of December 31, 2020, we completed 828 megawatts (“MW”) of solar power projects and have successfully sold a total of 86.1MW of solar projects in the year. The sales included 15.0 MW of DG projects in Hungary, 11.0 MW of DG projects in Poland, 10.6 MW of community solar projects in the U.S., 7.0 MW in Canada, 15.4 MW in Romania,4.3 MW of rooftop projects in the U.K. and 22.8 MW in China. We were operating approximately 173 MW solar power projects globally as of December 31, 2020, including 149 MW in China, and recorded electricity generation revenue from these projects. As of December 31, 2020, we had 1GW within the late-stage pipeline, of which 6 MW of the solar power projects were under construction.

 

Our net revenue from continuing operations increased from $96.9 million in 2018 to $119.1 million in 2019 and decreased to $73.5 million in 2020. We recorded operating income of $6.8 million and net income of $2.2 million in 2020, compared to operating loss of $1.0 million and net loss of $11.7 million in 2019, and operating income of $15.5 million and net income of $5.1 million in 2018. Net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd was $2.8 million in the full year 2020, compared to net loss attributed to ReneSola Ltd of $8.8 million in 2019 and net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd of $1.8 million in 2018. Net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd per ADS was $0.06 in 2020, compared to net loss attributed to ReneSola Ltd per ADS of $0.22 in 2019 and net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd per ADS of $0.05 in 2018. Non-GAAP net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd was $3.7 million in the full year 2020, compared to $14.1 million in 2019. Non-GAAP net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd per ADS was $0.08 in 2020, compared to $0.35 in 2019. Additionally, in the fourth quarter of 2020, we sold 15.4 MW of operating assets in Romania and 4.3 MW in the U.K. for a combined price of more than $30 million and resulting in meaningful operating income. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Overview of Financial Results—Net Revenue”.

 

Our Business

 

Our business primarily includes the sale of project SPVs or development and sale of solar power projects as a developer and the sale of electricity generated by the solar power projects operated by us as an IPP.

 

Project Development Business

 

We started our solar power project development business in 2012. We have recorded revenue from continuing operations from the sales of solar power projects since 2015. We have focused on small-scale DG projects, specifically commercial projects, with a few in small-scale utility projects and community solar gardens, in stable, mature, conservative country risk profile markets, including China, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, other developed countries with infrastructure upgrade needs, with attractive subsidies. See “—Our Sales and Customers.”

 

As a developer, we have two basic project development models.

 

Build-Transfer: we develop and build, or contract out wholly or partially to another party to develop and build, the solar power projects, which will be sold and delivered after being connected on grid.

 

Project Rights Sale: we involve in earlier development stages to secure land/roof with interconnection capacity and leverage the expertise of global project development teams to sell project rights at “notice to proceed,” or NTP, with attractive margin by selling project SPVs, which hold the early-to-late stage pipelines, before commencing the construction work of the solar power projects which we develop, acquire or develop jointly with other parties.

 

Besides the two basic models, we develop community solar gardens as developers and hold the community solar gardens through project SPVs. Prior to the delivery of the community solar gardens, SPVs enter into PPAs, which generally have a term of 20 years, with the power subscribers. After investors are found, we will sell the project rights, that is, the project SPV holding the community solar gardens, to the investors.

 

The prices of our solar power projects or projects SPVs are primarily based on the cash flow such projects can generate and the rate of returns. The cash flow can be affected by drivers such as electricity generation, electricity price (such as FIT or PPA), operating expenses, tax policy or a number of other reasons. Investors may compare the rate of returns generated from the solar power projects with the rate of returns in the financing or investment markets. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Volatility or large decrease in the prices of solar power project may cause significant fluctuations or declines in our revenue.”

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Purchasers of our developed solar power projects normally pay the purchase price in stages. Substantially all of these purchasers may require us to provide retention money, performance bond or bank guarantee for a certain period of time to secure the quality and performance of our developed solar power projects. During the covered period of time, if any significant defects or efficiency problem arises from sold solar power projects, it may cause the retention money to be deducted or forfeited.

 

The project development business continues to be our important strategy for the foreseeable future.

 

IPP Business

 

We started our IPP business by owning and operating solar power projects in 2013 and selling electricity generated by these solar power projects in 2013. We have tried to build our business as an IPP to develop and operate DG projects in well-developed regions for high PPA/FIT users.

 

We primarily conduct our IPP business in China where we can sell electricity in gross metering or net metering. In China, our IPP portfolio is the solar power projects which we developed. Since 2016, we are building our in-house O&M team in China to operate and maintain our entire owned and operated IPP portfolio in China.

 

In China, NEA and NDRC published the Notice on the Pilot of Distributed Generation Traded in Markets (file 2017-1901) to establish electricity trading market for DG projects which are similar to virtual net metering and US community solar gardens, allowing the IPP one of following:

 

to sell electricity to users directly, eligible for solar premium, and pay wheeling cost to the grid;

 

to sell electricity indirectly where the grid operators will arrange the sales, eligible for solar premium, and pay only wheeling cost to the grid; or

 

to sell electricity to the grid at national solar FIT price, and subtract corresponding transmission cost;

 

Under gross metering, except for grid parity/low pilot projects in areas with ample resource, good conditions and high market consumption, each solar project approved by the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, is eligible to receive an attractive fixed FIT which was determined by NDRC at the time when the project was filed for 20 years in principle and we expect our solar power projects to be long-term contracted assets. Therefore, except for grid parity/low pilot projects, we can sell all electricity generated by our gross metering projects to the State Grid and receive a total amount of FIT amount, which comprise an agreed electricity sales price from the State Grid and the subsidies from the government, for 20 years. Net metering is important to achieve grid parity. We develop and operate net metering DG projects in well-developed regions in China. Under net metering, we sell majority of the electricity to non-State Grid power purchasers at an agreed negotiated electricity sales price, which is usually at a market discount rate of the public retail rate, and then sell the remaining unpurchased electricity to the State Grid at a price based on the local desulphurized coal benchmark. Aside from the electricity sale, each KWh of electricity generated (sold to non-Sate Grid power purchasers or State Grid) will receive subsidies from the government. State Grid is an enterprise which constructs and operates power grids and is a pilot state holding company approved by the State Council of China to carry out state-authorized investment. The non-State Grid power purchasers are primarily commercial and industrial users. See “—Our Solar Power Projects.” The governmental subsidies in gross metering and net metering may be different. We have focused and will continue to focus on net metering projects with high return on invested capital.

 

On January 20, 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Notice on the issuance of Measures for the Administration of Additional Subsidy Funds for Renewable Energy Power Prices, to be effective as from January 20, 2020, which specifies: (i) The renewable energy power generation projects entitled to the subsidy funds shall be determined according to the following methods: (1) For the new renewable energy power generation projects needing subsidies after the promulgation of the Measures (hereinafter referred to as new projects), the MOF shall reasonably determine the total subsidies for the new renewable energy power generation projects supported by the subsidy funds in the current year according to the annual increase level of the subsidy funds, technological progress, industry development and other situations. The NDRC and the NEA shall, according to the renewable energy development plan, technological progress and other situations, reasonably determine the newly-installed capacity of renewable energy power generation projects that are subject to subsidy and within the total annual new subsidies determined by the MOF; (2) The existing renewable energy power generation projects which need subsidies before the promulgation of the Measures (hereinafter referred to as the “existing projects”) shall meet the requirements of the national competent energy authority. Those projects under scale management shall be included in the scope of annual construction scale management, and be included in the list of subsidy projects upon examination and approval by power grid enterprises in accordance with the procedures. (ii) The NDRC and the NEA shall, under the principle of determining expenditure based on revenue, formulate administrative measures for different types of renewable energy power generation projects, specifying project scale management and specific regulatory measures which shall be released to the public as early as possible. The projects that have administrative measures and that are included in the scope of national subsidy scale management for power generation by renewable energy resources shall be given subsidies accordingly. (iii) Power grid enterprises shall, as required by these Measures, regularly release and timely adjust the list of projects subject to subsidy for power generated by renewable energy resources that meet the subsidy conditions, and regularly submit the release information to the MOF, the NDRC and the NEA. The specific conditions for inclusion in the list of subsidy projects include: (1) New projects shall be included in the scope of the total subsidies for renewable energy power generation in the current year; existing projects shall comply with the requirements of the national competent energy authority and shall be included in the scope of annual construction scale management if under scale management. (2) The examination, approval and archival filing have been completed according to the relevant provisions of the state; and the state policies on the price of renewable energy sources are complied, and the on-grid price has been examined and approved by the competent price authority. (3) The grid connection time of all power generation units meets the subsidy requirements. (4) The relevant approval, ratification, filing and grid connection documents have been examined and approved by the national renewable energy information management platform. The State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Co., Ltd. shall be respectively responsible for releasing the list of subsidy projects within their respective business scope; local independent power grid enterprises shall be responsible for releasing the list of subsidy projects within their respective business scope upon submission to local provincial competent authorities of finance, price and energy for examination and approval.

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On January 20, 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Several Opinions on Promotion of the Sound Development of Power Generation with Non-hydropower Renewable Energy Resources to be effective as from January 20, 2020, which specifies: (i) Determining expenditure by revenue so as to reasonably determine the scale of new subsidy projects. The MOF shall, in consultation with relevant authorities, release the total amount of the annual new subsidy. The NDRC and the NEA shall, within the scope of total annual subsidy, reasonably determine the scale of newly-installed power generation projects of various types of renewable energy requiring subsidy, which shall be released to the public as soon as possible so as to guide the steady development of the industry. any existing offshore wind power generation project or solar photo-thermal power generation project for which the approval (record-filing) has been completed as required and all power units have been connected to the grid by December 31, 2021 shall be subsidized by the central finance according to the relevant price policies. (ii) Continuously driving down the prices of onshore wind power, PV power plants, and industrial and commercial distributed PV. We should continue to implement the mechanism for lowering guiding on-grid prices of onshore wind power, PV power plants, and distributed PV for industry and commerce, set a reasonable downgrading range, and guide onshore wind power, PV power plants, and distributed PV for industry and commerce to achieve on-grid parity as soon as possible. (iii) Simplifying the catalogue system management. The State shall not issue the catalogue of surcharges on renewable energy power prices. The information on application for power price surcharges of all renewable energy projects shall be filled in through the national renewable energy information management platform. Power grid enterprises shall, under principles determined by the MOF and other authorities and in light of conditions such as project types, grid connection time and technical levels, determine and regularly disclose to the whole society the list of renewable energy power generation projects meeting subsidy conditions, and report examination and verification results of the list to the MOF, NDRC and NEA. The projects in the 1-7 batches of catalogues that have been previously released by the three authorities shall be directly included in the subsidy list of renewable energy power generation projects of power grid enterprises.

 

On September 29 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Supplementary Notice on Matters Relating to Several Opinions on Promoting the Sound Development of Non-Hydro-Renewable Energy Power Generation, which specifies: (i) the quota of subsidy funds from the central budget for renewable energy power generation projects shall be approved based on the reasonable utilization hours, the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of PV power generation projects in the resource areas of Category I, II and III of PV are 32,000 hours, 26,000 hours and 22,000 hours respectively, while the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of projects in PV pioneer bases determined by the State and the bidding projects in 2019 and 2020 will increase by 10% on the basis of the hours in the resource areas where such projects are located; (ii) Subsidized electric quantity in the whole life cycle of a project = project capacity × whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of a project. To be specific, the project capacity shall be subject to the capacity determined at the time of approval (filing). If the actual capacity of a project is less than the approved (filed) capacity, the actual capacity shall prevail; (iii) For the projects that are included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation in accordance with the Measures for the Administration of Additional Subsidy Funds for Renewable Energy Power Prices (Cai Jian [2020] No.5, hereinafter referred to as Document No.5), subsidies will be granted based on the on-grid price for the electric quantity generated within the whole-life-cycle subsidized electric quantity. Subsidy standards = (renewable energy benchmark on-grid price (including on-grid price determined through bidding and other competitive methods) – local benchmark on-grid price for coal-fired power)/(1 + applicable value-added tax rate). If the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of a project are not exceeded, subsidies will be granted based on the actual electric quantity generated in the current year by a renewable energy power generation project. For a project that is included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation according to Document No.5, the part of electricity generated in excess of the subsidized electric quantity in the whole life-cycle shall not be entitled to the subsidy funds from the central finance, for which a green certificate will be issued for trading in such certificates. For the projects that are included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation according to Document No.5, after 20 years of grid connection for wind power and PV power generation projects, regardless of whether the projects reach the subsidized electric quantity in the whole life-cycle, they will not be entitled to the subsidy funds from the central finance and will be issued green certificates for trading in such certificates.

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In our IPP business, power purchasers may pay us monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly or half-yearly based on the terms in the Energy Management Contract (EMCs) and PPAs. The EMCs, which, among others, provide the terms and pricing of the sales and include the PPAs, are long-term, generally 20 years with a possible 5 year extension. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks related to Our Business—Our ability to transmit and sell the electricity generated from the solar power projects operated by us relies on the grid connection, dispatch agreements, PPAs and other contractual agreements.”

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had more than 100 solar power projects in operation globally with an aggregate capacity of approximately 173 MW. See “—Our Solar Power Projects.”

 

Owning self-consumption DG projects is an attractive business model for us, as it generates very high margin recurring revenue. However, following our long-term transformation plan to be an asset-light project developer and our new global expansion strategy, we may strategically dispose our China DG assets depending on the market situation.

 

Operations and Maintenance Business

 

Since 2016, we have been building our Operations and Maintenance (“O&M”) team to operate and maintain all of our owned and operated IPP portfolios in China, Europe and the United States. We utilize customized software to monitor the performance and security of our solar power projects on a real-time basis. We maintain our solar power projects to maximize the utilization rate, rate of power generation and system life of our solar power projects.

 

In addition to the O&M services provided by our in-house O&M team, we also engaged third party contractors to operate and maintain substantially all of our solar power projects overseas. We are responsible for the maintenance of those projects and perform overall maintenance obligations. We subcontract certain specific O&M tasks such as security and repair to third party contractors who are on-call to deliver such services on demand. We generally require warranties for defects in materials or components and warranties for module capacity under normal testing conditions.

 

Engineering, Procurement and Construction Business

 

Our Engineering, Procurement and Construction Business (“EPC”) includes engineering design, procurement of solar modules, balance-of-system components and other components, and construction contracting and management. We may engage our in-house EPC team or engage external experienced and qualified EPC contractors to handle and monitor the EPC process for our developed projects. Despite that, as the developer, we may procure the key components, such as solar modules and balance-of-system components.

 

We typically enter into short-term contracts with our suppliers and contractors on project-by-project basis or project portfolio basis based on the market prices.

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Engineering

 

Through engineering design, we aim to reduce the risks, reduce the costs and improve the performance of our solar power projects. The engineering design process includes the site layout and the electrical design as well as assessing a variety of factors to choose an appropriate technology and the modules and inverters in particular. In additional to relying on our in-house EPC team, we may engage independent third party EPC contractors to conduct and monitor this process.

 

Procurement

 

We procure solar modules and other key components for our developed solar power projects primarily by entering into short-term contracts to purchase at market prices. Suppliers of our solar modules and key components are primarily our related parties and third-party suppliers and contractors. Our purchasing decisions may take into consideration of technical specifications (including size, type and power output) bid price, warranty and insurance programs, spectral response, performance in low light, nominal power tolerance levels, degradation rate, technical support and the reputation of the supplier. We generally require warranties for defects in materials or workmanship for the components and a warranty for module capacity under normal testing conditions. Our in-house EPC team or external EPC contractors work in areas such as logistics, installation, construction and supervision. We maintain an updated list of qualified and reliable suppliers and third-party contractors with a proven track record with which we have established relationships. We choose our third-party suppliers and contractors through a bidding or quotation request process or through our affiliates or other cooperative arrangements with various manufacturers and contractors. The relevant departments of our local offices organize and collect bids/quotations, communicate with potential suppliers and contractors and coordinate with our local development teams to meet the local technical and legal requirements.

 

Construction

 

We engage third-party contractors for construction. We employ a number of measures to manage and monitor the performance of such contractors in terms of both quality and delivery time and to ensure compliance with the applicable safety and other requirements. For example, we generally have on-site supervisors and hold regular on-site meetings with the third-party contractors to monitor their work to ensure that projects progress according to schedule and adhere to quality standards. We also conduct periodic inspections to examine project implementation and quality standards compared to our project planning and prepare periodic reports for review and approval by the relevant departments in our corporate headquarters. If we identify any quality or progress issues which are attributable to the work of the third-party contractors, we will have further follow-up discussions with the third party contractors and monitor their rectification work.

 

We also require our third-party contractors for construction and installation to comply with applicable laws and regulations regarding work safety as well as our own production safety rules and policies. We examine and keep records of the production-related safety documentation and insurance policies of our third-party contractors. All production-related tools and equipment used by our third party contractors must be compliant with and certified by applicable regulatory standards. Our third-party contractors should also regularly provide their internal records relating to production safety (for example safety production training and safety inspections) to us, and we also conduct regular safety supervision and inspection on the third-party contractors.

 

Under our third-party contracting agreements, we are generally entitled to compensation if the third-party contractors fail to meet the prescribed requirements and deadlines under their contracting agreements. In general, our contractors require us to pay all of the contract price upon completion of the solar power projects and we require the contractor to provide a performance bond, which is usually for a period of one year to two years, in respect of the warranty obligations.

 

Commissioning and Warranties

 

When the EPC contractor notifies the regional solar power project team of on-grid operation, the regional solar power project team thoroughly tests each aspect of the solar power project. Commissioning tests generally include a detailed visual inspection of all significant aspects of the plant, an open circuit voltage test and short circuit current test prior to grid connection, and a direct-current test after connecting to the power grid. These tests are conducted in order to ensure that the plant is structurally and electrically safe and is sufficiently robust to operate as designed for the specified project lifetime. We have not experienced any material delays in construction or unsatisfactory workmanship with respect to our solar power projects. Following the commissioning, the solar power projects, which are intended for sale, will be handed over to the purchasers.

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In addition to the warranties provided by the manufacturers of modules, balance-of-system components and other key components, EPC contractors also typically provide a limited warranty against defects in workmanship, engineering design, and installation services under normal use and service conditions for a period of time following the energizing of a section of a solar power plant or upon substantial completion of the entire solar power plant. In resolving claims under the workmanship, design and installation warranties, the new owner has the option of remedying the defect to the warranted level through repair, refurbishment, or replacement.

 

Our Solar Power Projects

 

We have built our business as project developer and have selectively owned high quality projects. We have focused on small-scale DG projects and community solar gardens with individual project size of 5 MW-25MW. Our competitive advantages lie in small-scale projects with high PPA/FIT price in diversified jurisdictions which we believe are of attractive return and will be the trend for the development of the industry. Geographically, we are currently taking a new global expansion roadmap and strategically switching from our traditional market in China to the promising markets in the United States and Europe.

 

Projects for Sale

 

As of December 31, 2020, we completed 828 MW of solar power projects, and have successfully sold a total of 86.1MW of solar projects in the year. The sales included 15.0 MW of DG projects in Hungary, 11.0 MW of DG projects in Poland, 10.6 MW of community solar projects in the U.S., 7.0 MW in Canada, 15.4 MW in Romania, 4.3 MW of rooftop projects in the U.K. and 22.8 MW in China.. We were operating approximately 173 MW solar power projects globally as of December 31, 2020, from which we recorded electricity generation revenue. In addition, we had a late-stage project pipeline with an aggregate capacity of approximately 1GW in total and all these projects have a commercial operation date (“COD”) within 2021 and 2023.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had 12.3 MW of completed projects in Hungary, which were sold in the first quarter of 2021.

 

Completed
Projects for
Sale
  MW (DC)     Project
Type
  Status   Business
Model
Hungary     12.3     Ground Mounted   Ready for sale   Build-Transfer
 Total     12.3              

 

Operating Assets

 

As of December 31, 2020, we owned 173 MW of solar power projects globally in operation, including 149 MW of solar power projects in China, and generated 127.1 million kilowatt-hours, or kWh, of electricity from this IPP portfolio in China in 2020.

 

Operating Assets  Capacity (MW) 
China DG     
- Zhejiang   36.1 
- Henan   46.1 
- Anhui   30.9 
- Hebei   16.9 
- Jiangsu   12.8 
- Shandong   2.0 
- Fujian   4.4 
Total in China   149.2 
United States   24.1 
Total   173.3 

 

Project Pipeline

 

Our solar power projects pipeline includes early- to mid-stage projects pipeline and late stage projects pipeline. Due to different processes of developing projects in various regions, our early- to mid-stage projects pipeline refers to projects that we have internally approved to commit operational or financial resources to develop, including projects that we have conducted internal studies and are bidding for, that we are developing the financing plans, or working to obtain external approval or permits for such projects, or that we have agreed on preliminary terms or entered into memorandum of understandings. Late-stage projects mainly refer to projects that we have the legal right to develop based on definitive agreements, including the projects held by project SPVs or joint ventured project SPVs whose controlling power belongs to us, or can be purchased by us once the late stage is reached.

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As of December 31, 2020, we had late-stage project pipeline in the United States, Poland, Hungary, France, Spain, Germany and UK with an aggregate capacity of approximately 1GW with estimated COD within 2021 and 2023, of which 6.0 MW are under construction.

 

The following table sets forth the information of our late-stage pipeline as of December 31, 2020 (excluding sold, ready for sale and delivered projects):

 

Project Location  Project Pipeline (Late Stage) (MW)   Under Construction (MW) 
USA   350.1      
Poland   206.0    6.0 
Hungary   49.2      
France   100.0      
Spain   95.0      
Germany   50.0      
UK   150.0      
Total   1000.3    6.0 

 

The following tables set forth our late-stage project pipeline by location:

 

United States

 

Our late-stage projects total 350.1 MW, of which approximately 122MW are community solar projects in Minnesota, Maine, Pennsylvania, and New York. Additionally, we have projects under development in Utah, Florida, Maine and California. Meanwhile, we operate 24.1 MW of utility projects in North Carolina.

 

Project Pipeline  Location   MW
(DC)
   Project Type  Status   COD /
Sale
   Business
Model
Utah  UT    10.5   DG  Development   2021/2022  Project Development
MN-VOS  MN    1.4   Community Solar  Development   2021   Project Development
MN-VOS-2  MN    8.4   Community Solar  Development   2021/2022  Project Development
New York  NY    22.4   Community Solar  Development   2021/2022  Project Development
Florida  FL    104   Utility Scaler  Development   2022   Project Development
Main  ME    19.9   DG & Community Solar  Development   2022/2023  Project Development
Pennsylvania  PA    70.0   DG & Community Solar  Development   2022/2023  Project Development
California  CA    26.5   DG & Small-scale Utility Projects with Battery Storage  Development   2022/2023  Project Development
Acquisition of Selected Assets  US    87.0   DG & small-scale utility projects with battery storage  Development   2021/2022  Project Development
   Total    350.1               

 

Poland

 

Business momentum accelerated in recent months. As of December 31, 2020, we had 206 MW of projects in our development pipeline.

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Project Pipeline    Project Info    MW (DC)   Project
Type
    Status      Expected
COD / Sale
    Business
Model
Auction 2019 Dec    8 individual projects, 1MW each     8.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development      Under Development       Build-Transfer
Auction 2020 Q4    38 individual projects, 1MW each     38.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development      Under Development       Build-Transfer
Auction 2021 Q4    40 individual projects, 1MW each     40.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development      Under Development       Build-Transfer
Auction 2021 Q4    4 individual projects     120.0   Ground-mounted    Under
Development
      Under Development       Build-Transfer
     Total     206.0                     

 

Hungary

 

In Hungary, we invest in small-scale DG projects. Our late-stage pipeline has multiple “micro projects,” with an average size of 0.5 MW per project, bringing total capacity to 49.2 MW. These projects are under development.

 

Project Pipeline  Location   MW (DC)   Project
Type
    Status    Expected
COD / Sale
   Business
Model
Portfolio of “Micro PPs”  Hungary    15.0   Ground- mounted    Under construction    2021   Build-Transfer
Project Portfolio  Hungary    34.2   Ground- mounted    Under Development    2021/2022  Build-Transfer
   Total    49.2                  

 

France

 

In France, we have a project pipeline of 100 MW, all of which are ground-mounted projects.

 

Project Pipeline  Location   MW (DC)   Project
Type
    Status    Expected
COD / Sale
   Business
Model
Project Portfolios  France    70.0   Ground mounted    Under development    2021/2022  Project Development
AMI Aups / Tenergie  France    30.0   Ground mounted    Under development    2021/2022  Project Development
   Total    100.0                  

 

Spain

 

We have a late-stage pipeline of 95 MW of ground-mounted projects located in the Murcia and Alicante regions.

 

Project Pipeline  Location   MW (DC)   Project
Type
    Status    Expected
COD / Sale
   Business
Model
 Caravaca  Murcia     6.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2021   Build-Transfer
 Altajero  Murcia     6.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2021   Build-Transfer
 Abanilla  Alicante     4.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
 Pedrera  Alicante     10.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
 Serrata  Alicante     10.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
 Elda  Alicante     5.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
 San Carlos  Alicante     5.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
 Renedo  Alicante     29.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
 Barcial  Alicante     20.0   Ground-mounted    Under Development    2022/2023  Build-Transfer
   Total    95.0                  

 

Germany

 

We have secured a late-stage pipeline of 50 MW of ground-mounted projects now under development.

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Project Pipeline  Location   MW (DC)   Project
Type
    Status    Expected
COD / Sale
   Business
Model
Project Portfolios -Vodasun  Germany    50.0   Ground Mounted    Under development    2021/2022  Project Development
   Total    50.0                  

U.K.

 

We have a late-stage pipeline of 150 MW of ground-mounted projects under development.

 

Project Pipeline  Location   MW (DC)   Project
Type
    Status    Expected
COD / Sale
   Business
Model
UK- Novergy  UK    100.0   Ground Mounted    Under development    2021/2022  Project Development
UK- Innova  UK    50.0   Ground Mounted    Under development    2021/2022  Project Development
   Total    150.0                  

 

Community Solar Gardens

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had community solar projects in Minnesota, Maine, Pennsylvania, and New York with the capacity of approximately 122 MW. In 2020, we sold 10.6 MW of our Minnesota community solar gardens.

 

Utility Scale and Solar-plus-storage Projects

 

We acquired an energy storage business, including solar-plus-storage projects, from Nova Development Management. This transaction increased our development pipeline by approximately 200 MW and added an experienced solar project development team. The new team brings expertise in the development of U.S. utility scale projects, provides immediate access to battery storage, and enables us to deliver a more complete set of solution packages to our customers. Additionally, the acquisition gives us access to utility projects and development activities in several states, including Pennsylvania, California, New York, Maine, Illinois, and Arizona.

 

Our Sales and Customers

 

We selectively pursue high quality and low-risk solar power project opportunities, especially DG projects, and have been building our new solar portfolio comprised of those projects. We focus on conservative risk portfolio countries and regions where the solar power project markets are growing rapidly and expected to have sustainable growth supported by favorable government policies, including United States, Poland, Hungary, Spain, France, Germany and U.K.

 

Our project development business is primarily focused in the United States, Poland, Hungary, Spain, France and UK. We sell our developed projects or project SPVs to purchasers, who primarily include large utility companies, other IPPs that desire to sell the electricity from the projects to local power suppliers or users, and global investors such as asset management funds, pension funds and tax equity investors. Our community solar gardens are the solutions for businesses, government entities, municipalities, schools, hospitals, residential customers, and people looking for saving money on their electricity costs. As of December 31, 2020, we had community solar gardens in development in the United States.

 

The solar power projects for our IPP business are primarily located in China. In China, we can sell the generated electricity in gross metering to the State Grid, or in net metering to the non-State Grid power purchasers first and the remaining unpurchased electricity to the State Grid. The State Grid is an enterprise which constructs and operates power grids and is a pilot state holding company approved by the State Council of China to carry out state-authorized investment. The non-State Grid power purchasers in the net metering are primarily commercial and industrial end users. Outside of China, we sell the generated electricity primarily to the local transmission grid companies, utility companies, government entities, municipalities, community and other commercial and industrial end users.

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We have expanded our customer base beyond China. We have teams covering major solar power markets such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Poland, Hungary, France, Spain, Romania and Germany.

 

For the geographical distribution of our projects and the geographical revenues, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Overview of Financial Results—Net Revenue—Geographical Distribution.”

 

Engineering, Procurement and Construction

 

EPC includes engineering design, procurement of solar modules, balance-of-system components and other components, and construction contracting and management. We may engage our in-house EPC team or engage external experienced and qualified EPC contractors to handle and monitor the EPC process for our developed projects. Despite that, as the developer, we may procure the key components, such as solar modules and balance-of-system components.

 

We typically enter into short-term contracts with our suppliers and contractors on project-by-project basis or project portfolio basis based on the market prices. For more details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Business—Engineering, Procurement and Construction Business.”

 

Operations and Maintenance

 

Since 2016, we have been building our Operations and Maintenance (“O&M”) team to operate and maintain all of our owned and operated IPP portfolios in China, Europe and the United States. We utilize customized software to monitor the performance and security of our solar power projects on a real-time basis. We maintain our solar power projects to maximize the utilization rate, rate of power generation and system life of our solar power projects.

 

In addition to the O&M services provided by our in-house O&M team, we also engaged third party contractors to operate and maintain substantially all of our solar power projects overseas. We are generally responsible for the maintenance of those projects and perform overall maintenance obligations. We subcontract certain specific O&M tasks such as security and repair to third party contractors who are on-call to deliver such services on demand. We generally require warranties for defects in materials or components and warranties for module capacity under normal testing conditions.

 

Intellectual Properties

 

We rely primarily on trade secrets, employee contractual protections and other contractual restrictions to establish and protect our intellectual properties and proprietary rights. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Etc.—Intellectual Property”. Nevertheless, these measures afford only limited protection and the actions we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate to provide us with meaningful protection or commercial advantage. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risks Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights may undermine our competitive position, and litigation to protect our intellectual property rights may be costly.”

 

Quality Control

 

We have a risk control team to conduct comprehensive market due diligence to identify solar projects that have projected internal returns that meet our standards. We have experienced and qualified engineering teams and engage external independent experienced qualified engineering to design the projects with technical specifications that provide for the quality and performance of our solar power plants. Solar modules used in our solar power projects are from our related parties or third party suppliers and have the certifications and meet test standards. We closely monitor and supervise construction contractors as part of the quality control process, who also typically provide warranties and performance guarantees for a period of time. Our O&M team and third party O&M service providers tests, checks and continuously monitors the quality and performance of our operating solar power projects. See also “—Engineering, Procurement and Construction” and “—Operations and Maintenance.”

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Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Initiatives

 

We are committed to corporate social responsibility and meeting society’s changing needs despite the recent challenging economic environment. We are committed to supporting and participating in socially responsible projects that align with our core values and mission. We intend to make a difference in sustainability and environmental stewardship.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we completed around 828 MW projects. Our portfolio generated clean electricity about 1000 GWh/year, which reduced 700 thousand metric tons of CO2 emissions or was equal to removing 140 thousand passenger vehicles from the road.

 

As of December 31, 2020, we had 147 employees worldwide. We currently have two female directors on our board and two female VPs on our senior management team.

 

Competition

 

The solar market is highly competitive and continually evolving. There is increasing competition in the downstream solar business as traditional utility companies, solar manufacturers, state-owned companies, and financial institutions enter the market in midst of the existing local and international developers. We also face competition from other renewable energy companies and non-renewable power industries, including nuclear energy and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. Our primary competitors include local and international developers and operators. As we broaden our solar power projects, we will encounter significant competition from both domestic and international markets.

 

Our failure to adapt to changing market conditions and to compete successfully with existing or new competitors in the solar power industry, as well as the other renewable energy companies and non-renewable power companies, will limit our growth and will have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We operate in a highly competitive market and many of our competitors have greater resources than we do. We may not be able to compete successfully and we may lose or be unable to gain market share.”

 

Seasonality

 

Changes in climate, geography, weather patterns, and other phenomena in the regions where we operate may significantly affect our business. For example, solar power projects depend on the amount and intensity of sunlight, which is affected by weather and climate conditions. As a result, our IPP electricity production and amount of electricity sold and therefore our IPP revenue tend to be higher during periods or seasons when there is more irradiation.

 

Environmental Matters

 

During our project development process, we often prepare environmental impact assessment reports as part of the permitting process. Our in-house EPC team and/or external EPC contractors monitor the EPC process and ensure the environmental compliance during the construction process. Once operational, our solar power projects do not generate industrial waste.

 

We are in compliance with present environmental protection requirements in all material respects and have all material environmental permits necessary to conduct our business. Our operations are subject to regulation and periodic monitoring by local environmental protection authorities. If we fail to comply with present or future environmental laws and regulations, we could be subject to fines, suspension of production or a cessation of operations.

 

Insurance

 

We maintain property insurance policies, including property all risk insurance and machinery breakdown insurance, with insurance companies covering our assets, equipment, facilities, buildings and building improvements. These insurance policies cover losses due to fire, explosion, flood and a wide range of other natural disasters. We also maintain commercial general liability insurance, including professional liability insurance to protect professional advice- and service-providing the company from bearing the full cost of defending against a negligence claim made by a customer, and damages awarded in a civil lawsuit and public liability insurance will protect our business from the claims made by third parties for injuries to the person, or damage to property caused as a result of our business activities all over the world, as well as construction insurance. We maintain key-man life insurance for our executive officers, and director and officer liability insurance for our directors and executive officers. We consider our insurance coverage to be in line with other companies of similar size in China. However, significant damage to any of our solar power projects, whether as a result of fire or other causes, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operation.

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Regulation

 

Regulations in China

 

A description of the material government regulations on our business in China is summarized below:

 

Renewable Energy Law and Other Government Directives

 

In February 2005, China enacted its Renewable Energy Law, which became effective on January 1, 2006 and as amended in December 2009. The Renewable Energy Law sets forth policies to encourage the development and use of solar energy and other non-fossil energy. The renewable energy law sets out the national policy to encourage and support the use of solar and other renewable energy and the use of on-grid generation. It also authorizes the relevant pricing authorities to set favorable prices for the purchase of electricity generated by solar and other renewable power generation systems.

 

The law also sets out the national policy to encourage the installation and use of solar energy water-heating systems, solar energy heating and cooling systems, photovoltaic, or PV, systems and other solar energy utilization systems. It also provides the general principles regarding financial incentives for the development of renewable energy projects. The projects, as listed in the renewable energy industry development guidance catalogue, may obtain preferential loans from financial institutions and can enjoy tax preferences. The State Council is authorized to stipulate the specific tax preferential treatments. However, so far, no rule has been issued by the State Council pertaining to this matter. In January 2006, the NDRC promulgated two implementation directives under the Renewable Energy Law. These directives set out specific measures in setting prices for electricity generated by solar and other renewable power generation systems and in sharing additional expenses incurred. The directives further allocate the administrative and supervisory authorities among different government agencies at the national and provincial levels and stipulate the responsibilities of electricity grid companies and power generation companies with respect to the implementation of the Renewable Energy Law.

 

The PRC Ministry of Construction also issued a directive in June 2005, which seeks to expand the use of solar energy in residential and commercial buildings and encourages the increased application of solar energy in different townships. In addition, the State Council promulgated a directive in July 2005, which sets out specific measures to conserve energy resources.

 

On September 4, 2006, the MOF and Ministry of Construction jointly promulgated the Interim Measures for Administration of Special Funds for Application of Renewable Energy in Building Construction, pursuant to which the MOF will arrange special funds to support the application of Building Integrated Photovoltaics systems, or BIPV applications, to enhance building energy efficiency, protect the environment and reduce consumption of fossil fuel energy. Under these measures, applications to provide hot water supply, refrigeration, heating and lighting are eligible for such special funds.

 

On April 1, 2008, the PRC Energy Conservation Law came into effect (subsequently revised on October 26, 2018). Among other objectives, this law encourages the utilization and installation of solar power facilities in buildings for energy-efficiency purposes.

 

On December 16, 2011, the MOF and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development jointly released a notice regarding the application of PV technology in building structures, pursuant to which the PRC government offer subsidies ranging from RMB7.5 to RMB9.0 per watt for BIPV projects. The construction of such BIPV projects must be completed in 2012.

 

On April 16, 2009, the General Offices of the MOF and the PRC Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development jointly issued the Guidelines for Declaration of Demonstration Project of Solar Photovoltaic Building Applications. These guidelines set the subsidy to be given in 2009 to qualified solar projects at no more than RMB20 per watt for projects involving the integration of solar components into buildings’ structural elements and at no more than RMB15 per watt for projects involving the installation of solar components onto building rooftops and wall surfaces. In July 2009 and in March 2011, the MOF and the PRC Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development jointly issued the Implementation Plan for Demonstration Cities with Renewable Energy Building Application, the Implementation Plan for Promoting Renewable Energy Building Application in Rural Areas and the Implementation Plan for Further Promoting Renewable Energy Building Application. Pursuant to these plans, the central government will provide subsidies to certain cities and rural areas with renewable energy building applications.

54

On October 10, 2010, the State Council of the PRC promulgated a decision to accelerate the development of seven strategic new industries. Pursuant to this decision, the PRC government will promote the popularization and application of solar thermal technologies by increasing tax and financial policy support, encouraging investment and providing other forms of beneficial support.

 

In March 2011, the National People’s Congress approved the Outline of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the PRC, which includes a national commitment to promoting the development of renewable energy and enhancing the competitiveness of the renewable energy industry.

 

On March 8, 2011, the MOF and the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development jointly promulgated the Circular on Further Application of Renewable Energy in Building Construction to increase the utilization of renewable energy in buildings.

 

On March 27, 2011, the NDRC promulgated the revised Guideline Catalogue for Industrial Restructuring which categorizes the solar power industry as an encouraged item. On February 16, 2013, the NDRC promulgated the 2013 revised Guideline Catalogue for Industrial Restructuring to be effective on May 1, 2013, the solar power industry is still categorized as an encouraged item.

 

On July 24, 2011, the NDRC issued the Notice re Improvement of On-grid Pricing Policy for Solar Photovoltaics, in which, among other things, the NDRC adopted the following nationwide unified on-grid pricing scheme for non-bidding PV projects: (i) for projects which are approved before July 1, 2011, completed before December 31, 2011 and the price of which has not been approved by the NDRC, the pre-tax on-grid price shall be RMB1.15/kWh; (ii) for projects which are approved after July 1, 2011, and for projects which are approved before July 1, 2011 but not completed as to December 31, 2011, the pre-tax on-grid price shall be RMB1/kWh, except for Tibet, the pre-tax price shall be RMB1.15/kWh. The NDRC may adjust such on-grid pricing scheme based on cost variations, technology development and other relevant factors.

 

On February 24, 2012, the MIIT released the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Solar Photovoltaic Industry. According to the industry plan, the PRC will reduce the cost of solar power to RMB0.8/kWh by 2015 and RMB0.6/kWh by 2020 and increase production of solar panels.

 

On July 7, 2012, the NEA officially released the Twelfth Five-Year Plan on Solar Power Development. In the document, the NEA stated that by 2015, the total installed capacity of distributed PV generation will achieve 10 GW in Eastern and Central China by focusing on the establishment of distributed PV generation systems in such areas, and the total installed capacity of 10 GW of grid-connected PV power plants will be established to increase local electrical power supply in the regions with rich solar resources and uncultivated land resources, such as Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu and Inner Mongolia. The total estimated investment is RMB250 billion.

 

On July 9, 2012, the State Council released the Twelfth Five-Year Development Plan for National Strategic New Industries. According to this document, by 2020, the total installed capacity of PV generation will achieve 50 million kW, and the research and manufacturing technology of PV equipment will reach advanced global levels. This document also set forth the major actions to be taken and policies to be promulgated for promoting the development of solar power industry.

 

On January 1, 2013, the State Council issued the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Development of Energy. The plan supports the promotion and development of renewable energy, including the solar energy. The plan also encourages the development of solar PV power stations in the areas with abundant solar power resource.

 

On July 4, 2013, the State Council issued the Several Opinions on Promoting the Healthy Development of the Photovoltaic Industry, which further increases the installed capacity for solar electricity and puts forward various measures to develop the PV application market and adjust the industrial structure and regulate the industrial development order. In 2013, government authorities, including the NDRC, the MIIT, the PRC National Energy Commission, the MOF and the PRC State Administration of Taxation, have issued a series of regulations to implement the Several Opinions.

55

On August 26, 2013, the NDRC issued the Notice re Leveraging the Price to Promote the Health Development of the Photovoltaic Industry, in which, among other things, the NDRC adopted the following measures: (i) the country was divided into three solar resources districts, in which the FIT is separately RMB0.90/kWh, RMB0.95/kWh and RMB1.00/kWh; (ii) for distribution-grid-connected projects, the electricity subsidy standard is RMB0.42/kWh; (iii) the execution period for the aforesaid policies shall last, in principle, for 20 years; (iv) the aforesaid regional FIT policy shall apply to the PV power stations those were filed or approved after September 1, 2013 and those were filed or approved prior to September 1, 2013 but were put into operation after January 1, 2014, and the electricity subsidy standard shall apply to the distribution-grid-connected projects that are excluded from the central government investment subsidies. On December 26, 2016, the NDRC issued the Notice to adjust the FIT to RMB0.65/kWh, RMB0.75/kWh, RMB0.85/kWh, respectively, for three solar resources districts. For the distribution-grid-connected projects, the subsidy standard remains the same.

 

On August 29, 2013, the National Energy Administration promulgated the Interim Measures for the Administration of Solar Power Projects, which stipulated that solar power projects are subject to filings with the provincial NDRC. Such filing is subject to the national development plan for solar power generation, the regional scale index and implementation plan of the year as promulgated by the competent national energy authority and a pre-condition for connecting to power grid.

 

On November 18, 2013, the NEA promulgated the Interim Measures for the Administration of Distributed Generation Projects, or the Distributed PV Interim Measures, pursuant to which DG projects are subject to filings with the provincial or regional NDRC. Such filing is subject to State Council’s rules for administration of investment projects and the regional scale index and implementation plan of the year as promulgated by the competent national energy authority. DG projects in the regional scale index of the year that are not completed or put into operation within two years from their respective filing date must be cancelled and disqualified to receive national subsidies. The Distributed PV Interim Measures also provide that the filing procedures should be simplified and the electric power business permit and permits in relation to land planning, environmental impact review, energy saving evaluation and other supporting documents may be waived. Detailed requirements of the filing are also subject to local regulations, and the effects of the Distributed PV Interim Measures on our business are yet to be evaluated.

 

On January 17, 2014, the NEA issued the Circular on Targets for the Increase in PV Power Generation Capacity for 2014, and announced that the total target for the increase in PV power generation capacity for 2014 will be 14 GW, of which 8 GW will be reserved for distributed power generation and 6 GW will be reserved for power generation by solar power projects.

 

On February 8, 2014, the National Certification and Accreditation Administration and the PRC National Energy Commission jointly issued the Implementation Opinions on Strengthening the Testing and Certification of PV Products, or Implementation Opinions, which provide that only certified PV products may be connected to the public grid or receive government subsidies. The institutions that certify PV products must be approved by the Certification and Accreditation Administration. According to the Implementation Opinions, PV products that are subject to certification include PV battery parts, inverters, control devices, confluence devices, energy storage devices and independent PV systems.

 

On June 7, 2014, the General Office of the State Council of the PRC government set a target of 100 GW of solar capacity by 2020. In March 2015, the NEA revised China’s 2015 solar electricity installation target upwards by 20% to 17.8 GW of capacity for ground mounted projects and indicated that rooftop DG projects would no longer be subject to a quota. On April 2, 2015, the State Grid announced that 10 GW of solar power projects would be connected to grid every year until 2020. On September 24, 2015, the NEA increased the capacity scale by additional 5,300 MW in total for PV power stations in certain regions and the PV power stations that fall within such increased capacity shall generally be connected to the grid no later than June 30, 2016. In March 2016, the NEA set a target of 150 GW of solar capacity by 2020. Pursuant to the relevant regulations, rooftop DG projects generally receive a national subsidy of RMB0.42/kWh plus the local desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price for the electricity sold to the State Grid or a negotiated electricity purchase price for electricity sold directly to consumers. Ground mounted projects, as well as rooftop DG projects that sell all electricity generated to the local grid companies, are entitled to FIT of RMB0.80/kWh, RMB0.88/kWh or RMB0.98/kWh, depending on where the project is located (excluding on grid solar power projects located in Tibet), provided that these projects are filed after January 1, 2016 and fall within the regional scale index of the year, or these projects are filed prior to January 1, 2016 and fall within regional scale index of the year, but do not commence operations prior to June 30, 2016. Moreover, a solar power project that has obtained government approval on or after January 1, 2008 is fully exempted from PRC corporate income tax for three years starting from the year in which such project generates revenue from the sale of electricity, and is 50% exempted from PRC corporate income tax for another three years. Besides, certain solar power project entities enjoy the preferential tax policies in connection with the development of the western region of China and are subject to a preferential tax rate of 15%. The enterprises which are eligible for such preferential tax policy must engage in the business falling in the scope of the Catalogue of Encouraged Industries in Western Region, or Western Catalogue, promulgated by the NDRC. Enterprises that are eligible for the preferential tax rate of 15% may be able to enjoy such preferential tax rate and tax holiday simultaneously where certain criteria are met.

56

On September 2, 2014, the PRC National Energy Commission issued the Notice on Further Implementing Relevant Policies of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation, requiring relevant government authorities to continue to highly value the development of distributed photovoltaic, or PV power, further improve the quality of PV power projects, and put forward various measures to develop the PV application market and regulate the industrial development in the PV industry.

 

On October 9, 2014, the PRC National Energy Commission issued the Notice on Further Optimizing Operation Management of Photovoltaic Power Stations, requiring relevant government authorities to continue to highly value the construction of PV power stations, and put forward various measures to regulate the operation of on-grid and grid-tied electricity generation projects. Also, the Notice encourages local government authorities to guide and coordinate the construction of rooftop PV power systems by building owners or specialized enterprises, coordinate the connection of the systems to the power grid, enter projects on file and perform project management duties.

 

On October 28, 2014, NEC promulgated the Circular on Regulating the Investment and Development Order of PV Power Stations, pursuant to which the filings of solar power projects will be automatically invalidated if the construction of solar power projects has not commenced prior to the expiration of such filings and no application for extension has been made.

 

On March 16, 2015, the NEA promulgated the Circular on Implementing Plans of PV Generation Construction for 2015, which revised China’s 2015 solar electricity installation target upwards by 20% to 17.8 GW of capacity for ground-mounted projects and indicated that rooftop DG projects would no longer be subject to a quota.

 

On April 2, 2015, the State Grid announced that 10 GW of solar power projects would be connected to grid every year until 2020. On September 24, 2015, the NEA increased the capacity scale by additional 5,300 MW in total for PV power stations in certain regions and the PV power stations that fall within such increased capacity shall generally be connected to the grid no later than June 30, 2016. In March 2016, the NEA set a target of 150 GW of solar capacity by 2020. On April 8, 2018, the State Grid announced that solar power installed capacity will be more than 160 GW by 2020.

 

On April 20, 2015, the PRC National Energy Commission and the State Administration of Work Safety jointly issued the Standard for Safety Production of Photovoltaic Power Enterprises, which mainly defines standardized PV power generation project, and provides for standards and requirements for PV power generation enterprises with respect to their production goals, organization and duty, safe production input, safety management system, education and training, production equipment and facilities, operation safety, hidden danger investigation and governance, monitoring of major hazard source, occupational health, emergency rescue and certain other production and operation aspects.

 

On June 1, 2015, the PRC National Energy Commission, the MIIT and the Certification and Accreditation Administration of the PRC jointly promulgated the Opinions on Promoting the Application of Advance Photovoltaic Technology Products and Upgrading the Photovoltaic Industry, which emphasizes that the market plays a decisive role in allocating resources and leading the industrial upgrade of PV technology. According to the different stages of the development of PV technology and products, PRC government will adopt differentiated market access standards in supporting advanced technology products to expand the market and accelerating the elimination of outmoded products. It also provides that new PV power generation project shall meet the requirements stipulated in the Standard Conditions for the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Industry promulgated by MIIT. For example, the photoelectric conversion efficiency rates of polycrystalline silicon module and single crystal silicon module shall not be less than 15.5% and 16%, respectively.

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On November 27, 2015, the State Forestry Administration promulgated the Circular on the Use of Forest Land for the Construction of PV Power Stations, pursuant to which the approval from local forestry administration authority is required prior to the construction of the PV power stations and certain kinds of forest land are forbidden or restricted from being used to construct PV power stations. The Circular on Promulgating the Controlling of Index of Construction Land Use for PV Power Stations issued by the Ministry of Land and Resources on December 2, 2015, which became effective on January 1, 2016 and will be valid for five years, provides the control and approval of index of construction land use for newly constructed, reconstructed and expanded PV power stations.

 

On December 22, 2015, the NDRC issued the Notice on Improving the Feed-in Tariff Policies for Onshore Wind Power/Photovoltaic Power Generation, which provides the benchmarking FIT of solar power generation for the year of 2016. The NDRC continued to adopt the measures that divided the country into three solar resources districts, of which the FITs are RMB0.80/kWh, RMB0.88/kWh and RMB0.98/kWh.

 

In March 2016, the National People’s Congress approved the Outline of the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the PRC, which mentions a national commitment to continuing to support the development of PV generation industry.

 

On June 3, 2016, the PRC National Energy Commission issued the Notice on Implementation Plans of Photovoltaic Generation Construction for 2016, which provides that the newly installed capacity plan for PV power systems for the year of 2016 is 18,100 MW. Centralized and distributed PV power generation projects constructed pursuant to the plan are entitled to subsidies from national specialized fund for renewable energy development.

 

On May 30, 2016, the NDRC and the PRC National Energy Commission jointly issued the Guidance Opinion on Improving Scale Management of Photovoltaic Generation and Implementing Competitive Allocation of Projects, classifying the PV generation projects according to, among others, the type, scale, condition to connect to the grid, the absorption scope and the purpose of facilitating technological progress of such PV generation projects. Except for PV power generation projects meeting certain conditions, other projects shall compete for the annual construction scale quota. Among others, the competition conditions include investment capacity of the enterprises, preparation in progress, the condition to connect to the grid and absorption, and most importantly, the on-grid price.

 

On March 24, 2016, the NDRC published the Administrative Measures on the Guaranteed Procurement Mechanism of Electricity Generated from Renewable Energy Resources, which split the electricity generated from renewable energy resources into two tranches, i.e., amount guaranteed to be purchased and amount traded in accordance with the market-oriented approach. The amount guaranteed to be purchased will be purchased at FIT according to certain allocation plans or prioritized contracts with grid companies. As for the amount traded in accordance with the market-oriented approach, the electricity providers can voluntarily enter into contracts with grid companies in the open market.

 

On December 10, 2016, the NDRC issued the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for the Development of Renewable Energy. The plan supports the healthy development of renewable energy.

 

On December 26, 2016, the NDRC issued the Notice on Adjusting the feed-in tariff price for Onshore Wind Power/Photovoltaic Power Generation Projects, reducing the feed-in tariff price of the photovoltaic power generation infrastructures constructed after January 1, 2017. The disparity between the FIT for PV power generation projects and the desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price are funded by the renewable energy development funds.

 

On July 19, 2017, the NEA issued the Guidelines for Thirteenth Five-Year Plan, this document set forth the major actions to be taken and policies to regulating development of the photovoltaic industry.

 

On October 31, 2017, the NDRC and NEA published the Notice on the Pilot of Distributed Generation Traded in Markets (file 2017-1901) to establish electricity trading market for DG projects which are similar to virtual net metering and US community solar gardens.

 

On February 26, 2018, the NEA issued the Notice on Printing and Distributing the Instructions on Energy Work 2018, requiring steadily promoting the construction of PV generation projects and standardizing and promoting the development of DG projects.

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On April 2, 2018, the NEA issued Notice on Matters Concerning Reducing Burden on Enterprises in the Field of Renewable Energy, which promulgated measures to reduce the investment and operation burden on renewable energy companies, promote the reduction of renewable energy costs, and support the sound development of the real economy relating to renewable energy, etc.

 

On April 11, 2018, the MIIT, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, and the Ministry of Transport jointly issued the Smart PV Industry Development Action Plan (2018-2020), which calls for accelerating the intelligent manufacturing of advanced solar cells and components.

 

On October 30, 2018, the NDRC and the NEA jointly issued the Notice on Printing and Distributing the Clean Energy Consumption Action Plan (2018-2020), requiring the acceleration of the process of grid parity of PV Generation and the spread of cross-provincial market transactions of clean energy.

 

On January 7, 2019, the NDRC and the NEA jointly issued the Notice on Actively Promoting Non-subsidized On-grid Tariffs of Wind Power Generation and PV Generation, requiring carrying PV Generation grid parity pilot project without state subsidies with price which is equal to coal benchmark electricity price, and guiding the construction of a number of grid low pilot projects with price which is lower than coal benchmark electricity price, in areas with ample resource, good conditions and high market consumption.

 

On May 28, 2019, the NEA issued the Notice on the Relevant Matters Concerning Construction of Wind Power and PV Generation Projects in 2019, requiring actively promoting construction of grid-parity projects, strictly regulating the competitive allocation of subsidy projects, completely implementation of the conditions for power delivery and consumption, and optimization of the business environment for construction investment.

 

On January 20, 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Notice on the issuance of Measures for the Administration of Additional Subsidy Funds for Renewable Energy Power Prices, to be effective as from January 20, 2020, which specifies: (i) The renewable energy power generation projects entitled to the subsidy funds shall be determined according to the following methods: (1) For the new renewable energy power generation projects needing subsidies after the promulgation of the Measures (hereinafter referred to as new projects), the MOF shall reasonably determine the total subsidies for the new renewable energy power generation projects supported by the subsidy funds in the current year according to the annual increase level of the subsidy funds, technological progress, industry development and other situations. The NDRC and the NEA shall, according to the renewable energy development plan, technological progress and other situations, reasonably determine the newly-installed capacity of renewable energy power generation projects that are subject to subsidy and within the total annual new subsidies determined by the MOF; (2) The existing renewable energy power generation projects which need subsidies before the promulgation of the Measures (hereinafter referred to as the “existing projects”) shall meet the requirements of the national competent energy authority. Those projects under scale management shall be included in the scope of annual construction scale management and be included in the list of subsidy projects upon examination and approval by power grid enterprises in accordance with the procedures. (ii) The NDRC and the NEA shall, under the principle of determining expenditure based on revenue, formulate administrative measures for different types of renewable energy power generation projects, specifying project scale management and specific regulatory measures which shall be released to the public as early as possible. The projects that have administrative measures and that are included in the scope of national subsidy scale management for power generation by renewable energy resources shall be given subsidies accordingly. (iii) Power grid enterprises shall, as required by these Measures, regularly release and timely adjust the list of projects subject to subsidy for power generated by renewable energy resources that meet the subsidy conditions, and regularly submit the release information to the MOF, the NDRC and the NEA. The specific conditions for inclusion in the list of subsidy projects include: (1) New projects shall be included in the scope of the total subsidies for renewable energy power generation in the current year; existing projects shall comply with the requirements of the national competent energy authority and shall be included in the scope of annual construction scale management if under scale management. (2) The examination, approval and archival filing have been completed according to the relevant provisions of the state; and the state policies on the price of renewable energy sources are complied, and the on-grid price has been examined and approved by the competent price authority. (3) The grid connection time of all power generation units meets the subsidy requirements. (4) The relevant approval, ratification, filing and grid connection documents have been examined and approved by the national renewable energy information management platform. The State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Co., Ltd. shall be respectively responsible for releasing the list of subsidy projects within their respective business scope; local independent power grid enterprises shall be responsible for releasing the list of subsidy projects within their respective business scope upon submission to local provincial competent authorities of finance, price and energy for examination and approval.

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On January 20, 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Several Opinions on Promotion of the Sound Development of Power Generation with Non-hydropower Renewable Energy Resources to be effective as from January 20, 2020, which specifies: (i) Determining expenditure by revenue so as to reasonably determine the scale of new subsidy projects. The MOF shall, in consultation with relevant authorities, release the total amount of the annual new subsidy. The NDRC and the NEA shall, within the scope of total annual subsidy, reasonably determine the scale of newly-installed power generation projects of various types of renewable energy requiring subsidy, which shall be released to the public as soon as possible so as to guide the steady development of the industry. any existing offshore wind power generation project or solar photo-thermal power generation project for which the approval (record-filing) has been completed as required and all power units have been connected to the grid by December 31, 2021 shall be subsidized by the central finance according to the relevant price policies. (ii) Continuously driving down the prices of onshore wind power, PV power plants, and industrial and commercial distributed PV. We should continue to implement the mechanism for lowering guiding on-grid prices of onshore wind power, PV power plants, and distributed PV for industry and commerce, set a reasonable downgrading range, and guide onshore wind power, PV power plants, and distributed PV for industry and commerce to achieve on-grid parity as soon as possible. (iii) Simplifying the catalogue system management. The State shall not issue the catalogue of surcharges on renewable energy power prices. The information on application for power price surcharges of all renewable energy projects shall be filled in through the national renewable energy information management platform. Power grid enterprises shall, under principles determined by the MOF and other authorities and in light of conditions such as project types, grid connection time and technical levels, determine and regularly disclose to the whole society the list of renewable energy power generation projects meeting subsidy conditions, and report examination and verification results of the list to the MOF, NDRC and NEA. The projects in the 1-7 batches of catalogues that have been previously released by the three authorities shall be directly included in the subsidy list of renewable energy power generation projects of power grid enterprises.

 

On March 5, 2020, the NEA issued the Notice on the Relevant Matters Concerning Construction of Wind Power and PV Generation Projects in 2020, requiring provincial energy authorities to increase coordination with land, environmental protection and other departments to promote the reduction of non-technical costs, to create a good environment for construction and investment in wind power, photovoltaic power generation.

 

On March 31, 2020, the NDRC issued the Notice on Relevant Matters Concerning the Feed-in Tariff Policy for Photovoltaic Power Generation in 2020, in which, among other things, the NDRC adopted the following measures: (i) Continue to develop guide prices for centralized photovoltaic power generation. In consideration of market-based bidding in 2019, technological progress and other factors, the guide prices of new centralized photovoltaic power plant included in the scope of state financial subsidies I ~ III resource area shall respectively be RMB0.35/kWh (including tax, the same below), RMB0.4/kWh and RMB0.49/kWh. If the guide price is lower than the project location coal-fired power generation benchmark price (including desulfurization, denitrification, dust removal electricity prices), the guide price shall be subject to the local coal-fired power generation benchmark price. The feed-in tariff of new centralized photovoltaic power plant shall be determined through a competitive market approach, which shall not exceed the guide price of the resource area located; (ii) Reduce the subsidy standard for commercial and industrial distributed photovoltaic power generation. For the commercial and industrial distributed photovoltaic power generation projects included in the 2020 financial subsidy scale that using the “self-generation, surplus online” model, the full power generation subsidy standard is adjusted to RMB0.05/kWh; for the commercial and industrial distributed Photovoltaic power generation projects using the “full online” model, the subsidy shall be subject to the guide price of the resource area where the centralized photovoltaic power plant located. For all commercial and industrial distributed projects allocated by the energy authorities according to a unified market competition approach, the price formed by market competition shall not exceed the guide price of the resource area and the subsidy standard shall not exceed RMB0.05/kWh; (iii) Reduce the subsidy standard for household distributed photovoltaic power generation. The full power generation subsidy standard of household distributed photovoltaic power generation included in the 2020 financial subsidy scale shall be adjusted to RMB0.08/kWh. The Notice was implemented as from June 1, 2020.

 

On September 22, 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinping made a bombshell environmental declaration to the United Nations General Assembly. China, the world’s largest producer of green-house gases, would begin reducing its overall emissions after peaking in 2030—and by 2060, Xi said, the nation would achieve carbon neutrality.

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On September 29, 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Supplementary Notice on Matters Relating to Several Opinions on Promoting the Sound Development of Non-Hydro-Renewable Energy Power Generation, which specifies: (i) the quota of subsidy funds from the central budget for renewable energy power generation projects shall be approved based on the reasonable utilization hours, the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of PV power generation projects in the resource areas of Category I, II and III of PV are 32,000 hours, 26,000 hours and 22,000 hours respectively, while the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of projects in PV pioneer bases determined by the State and the bidding projects in 2019 and 2020 will increase by 10% on the basis of the hours in the resource areas where such projects are located; (ii) Subsidized electric quantity in the whole life cycle of a project = project capacity × whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of a project. To be specific, the project capacity shall be subject to the capacity determined at the time of approval (filing). If the actual capacity of a project is less than the approved (filed) capacity, the actual capacity shall prevail; (iii) For the projects that are included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation in accordance with the Measures for the Administration of Additional Subsidy Funds for Renewable Energy Power Prices (Cai Jian [2020] No.5, hereinafter referred to as Document No.5), subsidies will be granted based on the on-grid price for the electric quantity generated within the whole-life-cycle subsidized electric quantity. Subsidy standards = (renewable energy benchmark on-grid price (including on-grid price determined through bidding and other competitive methods) – local benchmark on-grid price for coal-fired power)/(1 + applicable value-added tax rate). If the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of a project are not exceeded, subsidies will be granted based on the actual electric quantity generated in the current year by a renewable energy power generation project. For a project that is included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation according to Document No.5, the part of electricity generated in excess of the subsidized electric quantity in the whole life-cycle shall not be entitled to the subsidy funds from the central finance, for which a green certificate will be issued for trading in such certificates. For the projects that are included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation according to Document No.5, after 20 years of grid connection for wind power and PV power generation projects, regardless of whether the projects reach the subsidized electric quantity in the whole life-cycle, they will not be entitled to the subsidy funds from the central finance and will be issued green certificates for trading in such certificates.

 

On March 11, 2021, the Fourth Session of the 13th National People’s Congress reviewed the “Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China and Vision 2035 (Draft)” proposed by the State Council, which agreed with the report on the results of the review by the Committee on Finance and Economy of the National People’s Congress and decided to approve this outline of the plan. This Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan declared to implement the 2030 national autonomous contribution target to address climate change and develop an action plan to reach the peak of carbon emissions by 2030 and to adopt stronger policies and measures to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.

 

Laws and Regulations Concerning the Electric Power Industry

 

The regulatory framework of the PRC power industry consists primarily of the Electric Power Law of the PRC, which became effective on April 1, 1996 (lately revised effective on April 24, 2015 and on December 29, 2018) and the Electric Power Regulatory Ordinance, which became effective on May 1, 2005. One of the stated purposes of the Electric Power Law is to protect the legitimate interests of investors, operators and users and to ensure the safety of power operations. According to the Electric Power Law, the PRC government encourages PRC and foreign investment in the power industry. The Electric Power Regulatory Ordinance sets forth regulatory requirements for many aspects of the power industry, including, among others, the issuance of electric power business permits, the regulatory inspections of power generators and grid companies and the legal liabilities for violations of the regulatory requirements.

 

Obtaining the Electric Power Business Permit

 

On January 5, 2006, the NDRC promulgated the Administrative Provisions on Renewable Energy Power Generation which set forth specific measures for setting the price of electricity generated from renewable energy sources, including solar and for allocating the costs associated with renewable power generation. The Administrative Provisions on Renewable Energy Power Generation also delegate administrative and supervisory authority among government agencies at the national and provincial levels and assign partial responsibility to electricity grid companies and power generation companies for implementing the Renewable Energy Law.

 

Pursuant to the Provisions on the Administration of the Electric Power Business Permit, which were issued by the SERC and became effective on December 1, 2005 (subsequently revised on May 30, 2015), unless otherwise provided by the SERC, no company or individual in the PRC may engage in any aspect of electric power business (including power generation, transmission, dispatch and sales) without first obtaining an electric power business permit from the SERC. These provisions also require that if an applicant seeks an electric power business permit to engage in power generation, it must also obtain in advance all relevant government approvals for the project including construction, generation capacity and environmental compliance.

 

However, there are exceptions which our certain PV Power Generation Projects may not need obtain an electric power business permit from the SERC. On July 18, 2013, the NDRC issued the Interim Measures for the Administration of Distributed PV Power Generation, which waived the previous requirement to obtain an Electric Power Business Permit for DG projects. On April 9, 2014, the NEA issued the Circular on Clarifying Issues concerning the Administration of Electric Power Business Permit, which waived requirement to obtain an Electric Power Business Permit for those solar power generation projects with installed capacity less than 6 MW and any DG projects approved by or filed with the NDRC or its local branches, and required local NEA to simplify the Electric Power Business Permit application procedure for the solar power generation companies.

 

Obtaining the Construction Engineering Qualifications and Permit

 

Pursuant to the Construction Law which was promulgated by the Ministry of Construction on November 11, 1997 (effective on March 1, 1998) and amended on April 22, 2011,and April 23, 2019 and the Regulation on Administration on Qualifications of Construction Engineering which became effective on March 1, 2015 and amended on September 13, 2016 and December 13, 2018, an enterprise engaged in the design and engineering work for an electric power project must obtain a qualification certificate and must conduct its work within the strict design scope set forth in its certificate. An enterprise conducting design or engineering work without first obtaining the qualification certificate or an enterprise that has obtained the qualification certificate but exceeds the permitted design scope may be subject to action by the relevant authorities, including monetary penalties, rescission of its certification or confiscation of all illicit gains.

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Pursuant to the Provisions on the Administration of Permits of Installation, Repair, and Test of Electric Power Facilities, which were promulgated by the NDRC on September 11, 2020 and became effective on October 11, 2020, any entity or individual engaged in installing, repairing or testing of electric power facilities in the PRC must obtain a permit unless otherwise exempted by the NEA. There are three categories of permits and each category is further subdivided into five levels. Each category represents a specific range of activity i.e., installation, repair and testing. Each level denotes the maximum voltage level of an electric facility that a permit holder may work with. To apply for a permit, an applicant must submit the application to the local branch of NEA. A permit holder may also apply to change either the permitted matter, which is the category or level of the permit, or the registered matter, which is the name, legal address, legal representative and other pertinent matters. A permit is valid for six years and can be renewed.

 

Grid Connection and Dispatchment

 

All electric power generated in China is distributed through power grids, except for electric power generated by facilities not connected to a grid. The distribution of power to each grid is administered by dispatch centers, which the administration and dispatch of planned output by power plants connected to the grid. The Regulations on the Administration of Electric Power Dispatch to Networks and Grids, promulgated by the State Council and the former Ministry of Electric Power Industry, effective on November 1, 1993, as amended on January 8, 2011, and its implementation measures, regulate the operation of dispatch centers.

 

FIT and Subsidies

 

FIT Payments

 

The Renewable Energy Law of the PRC, which was amended on December 26, 2009 and became effective on April 1, 2010, sets forth policies to encourage the development and utilization of solar power and other renewable energy. The Renewable Energy Law authorizes the relevant pricing authorities to set favorable prices for electricity generated from solar and other renewable energy sources.

 

The Circular on Improving Policies on the On-grid Tariffs of Solar Power Generation, which was issued by the NDRC and became effective on July 24, 2011, provides that the FIT (including VAT) for solar power projects approved before July 1, 2011 that began operation before December 31, 2011 would be RMB1.15/kWh and the FIT (including VAT) for solar power projects either approved after July 1, 2011 or completed after December 31, 2011 would be RMB1.00/kWh (excluding on-grid solar power projects located in Tibet).

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The NDRC further issued the Circular on Promoting the Healthy Development of PV Industry by Price Leverage on August 26, 2013, or the 2013 Circular. Under this circular, the FIT (including VAT) for solar power projects approved or filed after September 1, 2013 or beginning operation after January 1, 2014 would be RMB0.90/kWh, RMB0.95/kWh or RMB1.00/kWh, depending on the locations of the projects (excluding on-grid solar power projects located in Tibet).

 

In addition, the 2013 Circular sets forth special rules that entitle DG projects (excluding the projects that have received an investment subsidy from the central budget) to a national subsidy of RMB0.4/kWh. According to the Circular on Further Implementing Polices Relating to Distributed Generation issued by the NEA on September 2, 2014 and the Circular on Implementation Plans of PV Generation Construction for 2015 issued by the NEA on March 16, 2015, rooftop DG projects that sell electricity directly to consumers or to both consumers and grid enterprises will receive a national subsidy of RMB0.42/kWh plus the local desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price for the electricity sold to the State Grid or a negotiated electricity purchase price for electricity sold directly to consumers. Ground-mounted projects and rooftop DG projects which sell all electricity to grid enterprises are entitled to the FIT of RMB0.90/kWh, RMB0.95/kWh or RMB1.00/kWh, depending on where the project is located (excluding on-grid solar power projects located in Tibet).

 

On December 22, 2015, the NDRC issued the Circular on Improving the Policies on the On-grid Tariffs of Onshore Wind Power Generation and PV Generation, effective on January 1, 2016, which provides that ground mounted projects, as well as rooftop DG projects that sell all electricity generated to the local grid companies, are entitled to FIT of RMB0.80/kWh, RMB0.88/kWh or RMB0.98/kWh, depending on where the project is located (excluding on grid solar power projects located in Tibet), provided that these projects are filed after January 1, 2016 and fall within the regional scale index of the year, or these projects are filed prior to January 1, 2016 and fall within regional scale index of the year, but do not commence operations prior to June 30, 2016.

 

The difference (in amount) between the FIT for solar power projects and the desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price, or the subsidies paid to DG projects, are funded by the renewable energy development funds. The above FIT and subsidy policies are valid for 20 years for each power generation project since its formal operation, in principle.

 

On December 26, 2016, the NDRC issued the Circular on Adjusting the Policies on the On-grid Tariffs of Onshore Wind Power Generation and PV Generation, effective on January 1, 2017, which provides that solar power projects that sell all electricity generated to the local grid companies, are entitled to FIT of RMB0.65/kWh, RMB0.75/kWh or RMB0.85/kWh, depending on where the project is located (excluding on grid solar power projects located in Tibet which are entitled to FIT of RMB1.05/kWh), provided that these projects are filed after January 1, 2017 and fall within the regional scale index of the year, or these projects are filed prior to January 1, 2017 and fall within regional scale index of the year, but do not commence operations prior to June 30, 2017. In addition, pursuant to the Circular, the FIT shall be adjusted once a year.

 

On December 19, 2017, the NDRC issued the Circular on the On-grid Tariffs of PV Generation in 2018, effective on January 1, 2018, which provides that the FIT for solar power projects is adjusted to RMB0.55/kWh, RMB0.65/kWh, RMB0.75/kWh, respectively, depending on where the project is located (excluding on grid solar power projects located in Tibet which are entitled to FIT of RMB 1.05/kWh), provided that these projects are filed after January 1, 2018 and fall within the regional scale index of the year, or these projects are filed prior to January 1, 2018 and fall within regional scale index of the year, but do not commence operations prior to June 30, 2018. Moreover, the FIT for certain DG projects is reduced to RMB0.37/kWh.

 

On May 31, 2018, the NDRC, the MOF and the NEA jointly issued the Circular on Issues related to PV Generation in 2018, effective on May 31, 2018, which provide that solar power projects are entitled to FIT of RMB0.5/kWh, RMB0.6/kWh or RMB0.7/kWh, depending on where the project is located, and certain DG projects are entitled to FIT of RMB0.32/kWh. In addition, pursuant to the Circular, the construction of ordinary solar power stations shall be temporarily suspended in 2018.

 

On January 7, 2019, the NDRC and the NEA jointly issued the Notice on Actively Promoting Non-subsidized On-grid Tariffs of Wind Power Generation and PV Generation, requiring carrying PV Generation grid parity pilot project without state subsidies with price equal to coal benchmark electricity price, and guiding the construction of a number of grid low pilot projects with price lower than coal benchmark electricity price in areas with ample resource, good conditions and high market consumption. We believe this notice will not have material impact on the Company existing pricing policy.

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On March 31, 2020, the NDRC issued the Notice on Relevant Matters Concerning the Feed-in Tariff Policy for Photovoltaic Power Generation in 2020, in which, among other things, the NDRC adopted the following measures: (i) the guide prices of new centralized photovoltaic power plant included in the scope of state financial subsidies I ~ III resource area shall respectively be RMB0.35/kWh (including tax, the same below), RMB0.4/kWh and RMB0.49/kWh. If the guide price is lower than the project location coal-fired power generation benchmark price (including desulfurization, denitrification, dust removal electricity prices), the guide price shall be subject to the local coal-fired power generation benchmark price. The feed-in tariff of new centralized photovoltaic power plant shall be determined through a competitive market approach, which shall not exceed the guide price of the resource area located; (ii) for the commercial and industrial distributed photovoltaic power generation projects included in the 2020 financial subsidy scale that using the “self-generation, surplus online” model, the full power generation subsidy standard is adjusted to RMB0.05/kWh; for the commercial and industrial distributed photovoltaic power generation projects using the “full online” model, the subsidy shall be subject to the guide price of the resource area where the centralized photovoltaic power plant located. For all commercial and industrial distributed projects allocated by the energy authorities according to a unified market competition approach, the price formed by market competition shall not exceed the guide price of the resource area and the subsidy standard shall not exceed RMB0.05/kWh; (iii) The full power generation subsidy standard of household distributed photovoltaic power generation included in the 2020 financial subsidy scale shall be adjusted to RMB0.08/kWh. The Notice was implemented as from June 1, 2020.

 

Subsidy List

 

On November 29, 2011, the MOF, the NDRC and the NEA jointly issued the Interim Measures for the Administration of Levy and Use of Renewable Energy Development Fund, which provides that development funds for renewable energy include designated funds arranged by the public budget of national finance, and renewable energy tariff surcharge collected from electricity consumers. Solar power projects can only receive central government subsidies after completing certain administrative and perfunctory procedures with the relevant authorities of finance, price and energy to be listed in the Subsidy Catalog issued by the MOF, the NDRC and the NEA. These subsidies represent the difference between the FIT for solar power projects and the desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price. In January 2016, the NEA announced that there would be a nation-wide inspection on all the solar power projects that are in operation and under construction, and the solar power projects that fall within the regional scale index of the year would be included in and managed via the Platform for Renewable Energy Power Generation Projects for the purpose of government subsidies application and payment.

 

On January 20, 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Notice on the issuance of Measures for the Administration of Additional Subsidy Funds for Renewable Energy Power Prices, to be effective as from January 20, 2020, which specifies: (i) The renewable energy power generation projects entitled to the subsidy funds shall be determined according to the following methods: (1) For the new renewable energy power generation projects needing subsidies after the promulgation of the Measures (hereinafter referred to as new projects), the MOF shall reasonably determine the total subsidies for the new renewable energy power generation projects supported by the subsidy funds in the current year according to the annual increase level of the subsidy funds, technological progress, industry development and other situations. The NDRC and the NEA shall, according to the renewable energy development plan, technological progress and other situations, reasonably determine the newly-installed capacity of renewable energy power generation projects that are subject to subsidy and within the total annual new subsidies determined by the MOF; (2) The existing renewable energy power generation projects which need subsidies before the promulgation of the Measures (hereinafter referred to as the “existing projects”) shall meet the requirements of the national competent energy authority. Those projects under scale management shall be included in the scope of annual construction scale management, and be included in the list of subsidy projects upon examination and approval by power grid enterprises in accordance with the procedures. (ii) The NDRC and the NEA shall, under the principle of determining expenditure based on revenue, formulate administrative measures for different types of renewable energy power generation projects, specifying project scale management and specific regulatory measures which shall be released to the public as early as possible. The projects that have administrative measures and that are included in the scope of national subsidy scale management for power generation by renewable energy resources shall be given subsidies accordingly. (iii) Power grid enterprises shall, as required by these Measures, regularly release and timely adjust the list of projects subject to subsidy for power generated by renewable energy resources that meet the subsidy conditions, and regularly submit the release information to the MOF, the NDRC and the NEA. The specific conditions for inclusion in the list of subsidy projects include: (1) New projects shall be included in the scope of the total subsidies for renewable energy power generation in the current year; existing projects shall comply with the requirements of the national competent energy authority and shall be included in the scope of annual construction scale management if under scale management. (2) The examination, approval and archival filing have been completed according to the relevant provisions of the state; and the state policies on the price of renewable energy sources are complied, and the on-grid price has been examined and approved by the competent price authority. (3) The grid connection time of all power generation units meets the subsidy requirements. (4) The relevant approval, ratification, filing and grid connection documents have been examined and approved by the national renewable energy information management platform. The State Grid Corporation of China and China Southern Power Grid Co., Ltd. shall be respectively responsible for releasing the list of subsidy projects within their respective business scope; local independent power grid enterprises shall be responsible for releasing the list of subsidy projects within their respective business scope upon submission to local provincial competent authorities of finance, price and energy for examination and approval.

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On the same date, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Several Opinions on Promotion of the Sound Development of Power Generation with Non-hydropower Renewable Energy Resources to be effective as from January 20, 2020, which specifies: (i) Determining expenditure by revenue so as to reasonably determine the scale of new subsidy projects. The MOF shall, in consultation with relevant authorities, release the total amount of the annual new subsidy. The NDRC and the NEA shall, within the scope of total annual subsidy, reasonably determine the scale of newly-installed power generation projects of various types of renewable energy requiring subsidy, which shall be released to the public as soon as possible so as to guide the steady development of the industry. any existing offshore wind power generation project or solar photo-thermal power generation project for which the approval (record-filing) has been completed as required and all power units have been connected to the grid by December 31, 2021 shall be subsidized by the central finance according to the relevant price policies. (ii) Continuously driving down the prices of onshore wind power, PV power plants, and industrial and commercial distributed PV. We should continue to implement the mechanism for lowering guiding on-grid prices of onshore wind power, PV power plants, and distributed PV for industry and commerce, set a reasonable downgrading range, and guide onshore wind power, PV power plants, and distributed PV for industry and commerce to achieve on-grid parity as soon as possible. (iii) Simplifying the catalogue system management. The State shall not issue the catalogue of surcharges on renewable energy power prices. The information on application for power price surcharges of all renewable energy projects shall be filled in through the national renewable energy information management platform. Power grid enterprises shall, under principles determined by the MOF and other authorities and in light of conditions such as project types, grid connection time and technical levels, determine and regularly disclose to the whole society the list of renewable energy power generation projects meeting subsidy conditions, and report examination and verification results of the list to the MOF, NDRC and NEA. The projects in the 1-7 batches of catalogues that have been previously released by the three authorities shall be directly included in the subsidy list of renewable energy power generation projects of power grid enterprises.

 

On September 29 2020, the MOF, NDRC and NEA promulgated Supplementary Notice on Matters Relating to Several Opinions on Promoting the Sound Development of Non-Hydro-Renewable Energy Power Generation, which specifies: (i) the quota of subsidy funds from the central budget for renewable energy power generation projects shall be approved based on the reasonable utilization hours, the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of PV power generation projects in the resource areas of Category I, II and III of PV are 32,000 hours, 26,000 hours and 22,000 hours respectively, while the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of projects in PV pioneer bases determined by the State and the bidding projects in 2019 and 2020 will increase by 10% on the basis of the hours in the resource areas where such projects are located; (ii) Subsidized electric quantity in the whole life cycle of a project = project capacity × whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of a project. To be specific, the project capacity shall be subject to the capacity determined at the time of approval (filing). If the actual capacity of a project is less than the approved (filed) capacity, the actual capacity shall prevail; (iii) For the projects that are included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation in accordance with the Measures for the Administration of Additional Subsidy Funds for Renewable Energy Power Prices (Cai Jian [2020] No.5, hereinafter referred to as Document No.5), subsidies will be granted based on the on-grid price for the electric quantity generated within the whole-life-cycle subsidized electric quantity. Subsidy standards = (renewable energy benchmark on-grid price (including on-grid price determined through bidding and other competitive methods) – local benchmark on-grid price for coal-fired power)/(1 + applicable value-added tax rate). If the whole-life-cycle reasonable utilization hours of a project are not exceeded, subsidies will be granted based on the actual electric quantity generated in the current year by a renewable energy power generation project. For a project that is included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation according to Document No.5, the part of electricity generated in excess of the subsidized electric quantity in the whole life-cycle shall not be entitled to the subsidy funds from the central finance, for which a green certificate will be issued for trading in such certificates. For the projects that are included in the scope of subsidy list for renewable energy power generation according to Document No.5, after 20 years of grid connection for wind power and PV power generation projects, regardless of whether the projects reach the subsidized electric quantity in the whole life-cycle, they will not be entitled to the subsidy funds from the central finance and will be issued green certificates for trading in such certificates.

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Development Funds of Renewable Energy

 

The Renewable Energy Law provides financial incentives, including national funding for the development of renewable energy projects.

 

Pursuant to the Interim Measures for the Administration of Designated Funds for the Development of Renewable Energy issued by the MOF and effective on April 2, 2015 in place of its old version, the MOF sets up designated funds to support the development and utilization of renewable energy in accordance with the national fiscal budget.

 

According to the Implementing Measures for the Administration of Price of Renewable Energy and Cost Sharing Program issued by the NDRC, the gap between the FIT for solar power projects and the desulphurized coal benchmark electricity price is subsidized by collecting tariff surcharge from the electricity consumers within the service coverage of grid enterprises at or above provincial level.

 

Mandatory Purchase of Renewable Energy

 

The Renewable Energy Law imposes mandatory obligations on grid enterprises to purchase the full amount of on-grid electricity generated by approved renewable energy plants whose power generation projects meet the grid connection technical standards in the areas covered by the grid enterprises’ power grids. Grid enterprises must improve the power grid construction in order to better absorb electricity generated from renewable energy.

 

Pursuant to the Measures for the Supervision and the Administration of Purchase of Full Amount of Renewable Energy by Grid Companies issued by the SERC in July 2007, the SERC and its local branches supervise the purchase of the full amount of renewable energy by the grid enterprises. If the grid enterprises do not purchase the full volume of the electricity generated from the renewable energy due to the circumstances such as force majeure or any other circumstance endangering the safety and stability of the power grids, the grid enterprises must promptly notify the renewable energy power generation companies of the details in writing and also submit detailed facts to the competent local branches of the SERC.

 

The Several Opinions on Promoting the Healthy Development of PV Industry also requires the grid enterprises to ensure PV power generation projects’ timely connection to the power grid and purchase the full amount of electricity generated by the PV power generation projects.

 

On March 20, 2015, the NDRC and the NEA issued a directive opinion, which emphasizes that the competent provincial authorities must strengthen the implementation of the provisions with regard to the purchase of the full amount of electricity generated by renewable energy and avoid any curtailment of solar power projects. In addition, it also stated that electricity generated by clean energy is encouraged to be sold directly to the consumers in the regions where there is ample supply of clean energy, and the relevant parities must coordinate the trans-provincial supply of electricity and power transmission capability, in order to maximize the utilization of clean energy. Local governments also announced their intentions to efficiently implement the system regarding the purchase of the full amount of renewable energy, such as the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government.

 

On March 24, 2016, the NDRC issued the Measures for the Administration of Guaranteed Purchase of Full Amount of Renewable Energy, to strengthen the administration of, and provide details for, the implementation of purchase of the full amount of renewable energy by the grid enterprises.

 

Clean Development Mechanism

 

Clean Development Mechanism, or CDM, is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, or the UNFCCC. It allows industrialized countries with a greenhouse gas emission reduction commitment to invest in emission reducing projects in developing countries in order to earn Certified Emission Reduction, or CERs. The PRC approved and ratified the UNFCCC in 1993 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 but has no binding obligation to meet the emission reduction targets. On August 3, 2011, the Measures for the Administration of Operation of Clean Development Mechanism Projects promulgated by the NDRC jointly with the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the MOF, sets forth general rules and specific requirements for the application for, and approval of, CDM projects. Only companies wholly owned or controlled by PRC companies are qualified to apply for the PRC government’s approval for a CDM project. Some of our solar power projects are on the list of CDM projects.

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Environmental Protection

 

The construction processes of our solar power projects may generate material levels of noise, wastewater, gaseous emissions and other wastes. Therefore, we are subject to a variety of government regulations related to the storage, use and disposal of hazardous materials and to the protection of the environment of the community. The major environmental regulations applicable our business activities in the PRC include the Environmental Protection Law of the PRC, the Law on the Prevention and Control of Noise Pollution, the Law on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution, the Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, the Law on the Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution, the Environmental Impact Evaluation of Law, and the Regulations on the Administration of Environmental Protection In Construction Projects. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Compliance with environmentally safe production and construction regulations can be costly, while non-compliance with such regulations may result in adverse publicity and potentially significant monetary damages, fines and suspension of our business operations.”

 

Foreign Investment in Solar Power Business and Restriction on Foreign Ownership

 

The principal regulations governing foreign ownership of solar power businesses in the PRC are the Encouraged Foreign Investment Industries Catalog, effective as of January 27, 2021, or the Catalogue 2020, which is a replacement of the 2007, 2011 ,2015, 2017 and 2019 versions of the Foreign Investment Industrial Guidance Catalogue, and the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (Edition 2020) issued by the NDRC and the PRC Ministry of Commerce. Under the Catalog 2020, the solar power industry is classified as an “encouraged foreign investment industry.” Foreign-invested enterprises in the encouraged foreign investment industry are entitled to certain preferential treatment, such as exemption from tariff on equipment imported for their operations, after obtaining approval from the PRC government authorities. ReneSola PV Power was categorized in the “encouraged” industry under the Catalogue 2020.

 

Environmental and Safety Regulations

 

We are subject to a variety of governmental regulations related to environmental protection. The major environmental regulations applicable to us include the Environmental Protection Law of PRC, the Law of PRC on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, Implementation Rules of the Law of PRC on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, the Law of PRC on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution, the Law of PRC on the Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution, and the Law of PRC on the Prevention and Control of Noise Pollution. In addition, we are also subject to laws and regulations governing work safety and occupational disease prevention.

 

We believe we are in compliance with present environmental protection requirements in all material respects and have all material environmental permits necessary to conduct our business. Our operations are subject to regulation and periodic monitoring by local environmental protection and work safety authorities.

 

In response to concerns suggesting that emissions of certain gases, commonly referred to as “greenhouse gases” (including carbon dioxide and methane) may be contributing to global climate change, China has indicated that it highly commends and supports the Copenhagen Accord, which endorses the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol. In 2009, China has decided to reduce the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product by 40% to 45% by 2020, compared with the levels of 2005. This decision may require changes to the current law and policy. Any such changes in environmental laws or regulations may have adverse impact on the manufacture, sale and disposal of solar power products and their raw materials, which may in turn adversely affect us, our suppliers and our customers.

 

Regulation of Foreign Currency Exchange and Dividend Distribution

 

Foreign Currency Exchange. Foreign currency exchange in China is primarily regulated by:

 

PRC Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation (1996), as amended in 1997 and 2008, or the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation; and

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The Administration Rules of the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange (1996).

 

Under the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation, the Renminbi is convertible for current account items, which include, among other things, dividend payments, interest and royalty payments, and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions. Conversion of Renminbi into foreign currency for capital account items, such as direct investment, loans, investment in securities and repatriation of funds, however, is still subject to the approval of SAFE or its local branches. Under the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation, foreign-invested enterprises may only buy, sell and/or remit foreign currencies at the banks authorized to conduct foreign exchange transactions by complying with certain procedural requirements such as providing valid commercial documents and, in the case of capital account item transactions, only after obtaining approval from SAFE or its local branches. Capital investments directed outside of China by foreign-invested enterprises are also subject to restrictions, which include approvals by the PRC Ministry of Commerce, SAFE or its local branches and the PRC National Development and Reform Commission. Under our current structure, our income will be primarily derived from dividend payments from our operating subsidiaries in China.

 

On March 30, 2015, SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Registered Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or Circular 19, which allows foreign-invested enterprises generally to decide when to exchange into Renminbi their foreign exchange denominated paid-in capital, but only up to a maximum percentage specified by SAFE. The maximum percentage specified by SAFE is currently 100%, but SAFE may choose to adjust the permitted level in due time in light of international balance of payments. The use of any such Renminbi funds by foreign-invested enterprises is also subject to review and approval by SAFE or local SAFE branches or designated banks. Circular 19 further provides that any such Renminbi funds of a foreign-invested enterprise may not be used for any purpose outside of the entity’s business scope or if such use would violate the laws and regulations of the PRC. For example, such Renminbi funds may not be used for the making of Renminbi-denominated entrusted loans that are not within the enterprise’s business scope, for the repayment of inter-enterprise loans (including third party advances), or for the purpose of relending to third parties Renminbi-denominated bank loans made to the enterprise. Violations of Circular 19 could result in severe monetary penalties, including substantial fines as set forth in the PRC Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation.

 

Dividend Distribution. Pursuant to the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation and various regulations issued by SAFE or its local branches, and other relevant PRC government authorities, the PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China.

 

The principal laws governing the distribution of dividends paid by Foreign-invested enterprises:

 

Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (2019);

 

Company Law of the People’s Republic of China (1993), as amended in 1999, 2004, 2005, 2013 and 2018.

 

Under these laws and regulations, Foreign-invested enterprises in China may, subject to the ongoing compliance with applicable foreign exchange regulations, pay dividends only out of their accumulated after-tax profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, an enterprise in China is required to set aside at least 10.0% of its after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to its statutory reserves until the accumulative amount of such reserves reach 50.0% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. A foreign-invested enterprise has the discretion to allocate a portion of its after-tax profits to discretion accumulation reserves, which may not be distributed to equity owners except in the event of liquidation.

 

In May 2013, SAFE issued Notice 21 (later revised on October 10, 2018), which provides detailed disclosure requirements and examination standards for SAFE registration. Foreign organizations and individuals involved in direct investment activities in China shall be registered with the relevant SAFE branch (es), including the overseas SPVs established by PRC residents for the purpose of holding domestic or offshore assets or interests. Pursuant to Notice 13 issued by the SAFE on February 13, effective as of June 1, 2015, pursuant to which, entities and individuals are required to apply for foreign exchange registration of foreign direct investment and overseas direct investment, with qualified banks, instead of SAFE.

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In July 2014, SAFE promulgated Notice 37, which replaced Notice 75 (Notice on Issues Relating to the Administration of Foreign Exchange in Fund-raising and Reverse Investment Activities of Domestic Residents Conducted via Offshore Special Purpose Companies) promulgated by SAFE in October 2005.

 

Notice 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, referred to in Notice 37 as a “special purpose vehicle,” for the purpose of holding domestic or offshore assets or interests. Notice 37 further requires amendment to a PRC resident’s registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the SPV, such as an increase or decrease in the capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a SPV fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that SPV may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the SPV may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital to its PRC subsidiary.

 

Moreover, Notice 37 applies retroactively. As a result, PRC residents who had made capital contributions to SPVs based on their lawful domestic or overseas assets or interests but did not go through overseas investment foreign exchange registration formalities prior to the implementation of Notice 37 should provide the local SAFE branch with written explanations regarding their failure to do so, and the local SAFE branch will conduct registration retrospectively based on the principle of legality and reasonableness.

 

On June 16, 2016, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Reforming and Regulating of Settlement of Foreign Exchange of Capital Account, which allows domestic enterprises, including Chinese enterprises and foreign-invested enterprises (excluding financial institutions), to exchange settlement for foreign debts in the form of voluntary exchange settlement. For foreign exchange receipts (including the foreign exchange capital, foreign debts and the repatriated funds raised in the overseas listing) which are allowed to be settled voluntarily, domestic entities may complete foreign exchange settlement formalities with their bank according to their business operation need.

 

According to these regulations, PRC residents who have established or acquired control of our company are required to register with SAFE in connection with their investments in us.

 

On December 25, 2006, the People’s Bank of China promulgated the “Measures for Administration of Individual Foreign Exchange.” On January 5, 2007, SAFE promulgated the Implementation Rules of Measures for Administration of Individual Foreign Exchange and as amended on May 29, 2016. On February 15, 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Issues Related to Foreign Exchange Administration in Domestic Individuals’ Participation in Equity Incentive Plans of Companies Listed Abroad, or Notice 7. According to Notice 7, PRC citizens who are granted shares or share options by a company listed on an overseas stock market according to its employee share option plan or share incentive plan are required to register with SAFE or its local counterparts.

 

Intellectual Property Rights

 

Patents

 

The PRC has domestic laws for the protection of rights in copyrights, patents, trademarks and trade secrets. The PRC is also a signatory to the world’s major intellectual property conventions, including:

 

Convention establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Convention) (June 4, 1980);

 

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (March 19, 1985);

 

Patent Cooperation Treaty (January 1, 1994); and

 

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) (November 11, 2001).

 

Patents in the PRC are governed by the PRC Patent Law (March 12, 1984), as amended and its Implementing Rules (June 15, 2001), as amended.

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The PRC is a signatory to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, in accordance with which any person who has duly filed an application for a patent in one signatory country shall enjoy, for the purposes of filing in the other countries, a right of priority during the period fixed in the convention (12 months for inventions and utility models, and 6 months for industrial designs).

 

The PRC Patent Law covers three kinds of patents, namely, patents for inventions, utility models and designs. The Chinese patent system adopts the principle of first to file. This means that, where multiple patent applications are filed for the same invention, a patent will be granted only to the party that filed its application first. Consistent with international practice, the PRC only allows the patenting of inventions or utility models that possess the characteristics of novelty, inventiveness and practical applicability. For a design to be patentable, it should not be identical with or similar to any design which has been publicly disclosed in publications in the country or abroad before the date of filing or has been publicly used in the country before the date of filing, and should not be in conflict with any prior right of another.

 

PRC law provides that anyone wishing to exploit the patent of another must conclude a written licensing contract with the patent holder and pay the patent holder a fee. One rather broad exception to this, however, is where a party possesses the means to exploit a patent for inventions or utility models but cannot obtain a license from the patent holder on reasonable terms and in a reasonable period of time, the PRC National Intellectual Property Administration is authorized to grant a compulsory license. A compulsory license can also be granted where a national emergency or any extraordinary state of affairs occurs or where the public interest so requires. The patent holder may appeal such a decision within three months from receiving notification by filing suit in the People’s Court.

 

PRC law defines patent infringement as the exploitation of a patent without the authorization of the patent holder. A patent holder who believes his patent is being infringed may file a civil suit or file a complaint with a local PRC Intellectual Property Administrative Authority, which may order the infringer to stop the infringing acts. A preliminary injunction may be issued by the People’s Court upon the patentee’s or the interested parties’ request before instituting any legal proceedings or during the proceedings. Evidence preservation and property preservation measures are also available both before and during the litigation. Damages in the case of patent infringement is calculated as either the loss suffered by the patent holder arising from the infringement or the benefit gained by the infringer from the infringement. If it is difficult to ascertain damages in this manner, damages may be determined with reference to the license fee under a contractual license.

 

Trademark

 

The PRC Trademark Law, adopted in 1982 and revised in 1993, 2001,2013, and 2019 with its implementation regulations adopted in 2002 and revised in 2014, protects registered trademarks. The Trademark Office of China National Intellectual Property Administration handles trademark registrations and grants trademark registrations for a term of ten years, which is subject to rollover by application.

 

Regulations in the British Virgin Islands

 

The British Virgin Islands Economic Substance (Companies and Limited Liability Partnerships) Act 2018, as amended, came into effect on January 1, 2019. It, together with the rules published by the BVI International Tax Authority (the “ITA”) on October 9, 2019 and updated on February 10, 2020, set out the laws on economic substance (the “Economic Substance Laws”) and their effect on legal entities like the Company formed in the British Virgin Islands. The Company is required to consider its economic substance position on an annual basis on and from June 30, 2019 and to file annual reports in the British Virgin Islands each year disclosing whether or not it is carrying out relevant activities (within the meaning of the Economic Substance Law), and if it is, it must comply with its obligations as regards economic substance. The implication for non-compliance is, broadly, that the ITA may issue penalties and, potentially, apply to court in the British Virgin Islands to liquidate non-compliant entity.

 

The Company has taken and will continue to take advice from its British Virgin Islands counsel as to the steps it should take to comply with the Economic Substance Law.

 

Regulation in the EU

 

In December 2020, EU heads of government approved the European Climate Law, a legally binding commitment of net zero CO2 emissions (carbon neutrality) by 2050. (The UK, of course, is no longer an EU member, but it has equivalent legislation, enacted by parliament in 2019.) It underscores that the EU also mandated an emissions cut of at least 55% by 2030 versus the 1990 baseline, as compared to the previously pledged 40% cut.  Concurrently, leaders approved a plan to allocate at least 30% of the EU’s ordinary budget plus COVID-related stimulus to climate action. Based on the total package of €1.8 trillion over seven years, the climate component equates to a hefty €540 billion. This will disproportionately benefit the EU’s less wealthy eastern members. The essential point is that the Climate Law was a very big deal: the world’s most important environmental policy decision of 2020, and arguably ever.

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Regulations in the United States

 

On March 31, 2021, US President Joe Biden announced to include a 10-year extension for the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) for both clean power generation and energy storage as part of a US $2 trillion infrastructure investment plan. It is a proposal to extend the Investment Tax Credit and Production Tax Credit schemes for clean power generation and also to extend the credit scheme for storage. The direct-pay option for the ITC will also be maintained within the extension. Credit rates will be phased down over the 10-year period. Further measures included within the plan pertaining to clean energy are the creation of an Energy Efficiency and Clean Electricity Standard, intended to cut electricity bills and carbon emissions relating to power generation, while also increasing competition in the market.

 

Federal government buildings will also be mandated to procure clean power for all of their supply needs on a 24/7 basis.  

 

Grid infrastructure upgrades have also been targeted, and a further investment tax credit will be created to incentivize the development of at least 20GW of high-voltage capacity power lines, supported by a new Grid Deployment Authority at the Department of Energy, to accelerate America’s clean energy transition.

 

C.Organizational Structure

 

As of December 31, 2020, we conduct our business primarily through the subsidiaries, which are listed in “Item 4. Information on the Company — A. History and Development of the Company.”

 

In addition to the significant subsidiaries above, we also have other principal subsidiaries incorporated in different jurisdictions.

 

The following diagram illustrates our current corporate structure, including our significant subsidiaries, as of the date of this annual report.

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The diagram above omits the subsidiaries that are insignificant to us.

 

D.Property, Plants and Equipment

 

Currently, our property, plants and equipment are primarily our project related infrastructures and assets, such as power stations and ancillary infrastructures. For more details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Solar Power Projects.”

 

Certain of our project infrastructures are pledged to secure our bank borrowings and equities of certain of our project companies are pleaded in our finance lease arrangements. As of December 31, 2019, short-term borrowings of $7,173,571, bond payable of $2,503,621 and long-term borrowings of $31,950,441, including current portion of $28,583,380 were jointly guaranteed by the Company and its subsidiaries.

 

As of December 31, 2020, short-term borrowings of $31,980,868 and bond payable of $9,034,691 were jointly guaranteed by the Company and its subsidiaries. The short-term borrowings of $31,980,868 and bond payable of $9,034,691 were also secured by all of the Company’s estate, right, title and interest and pledged by the shares or ownership interests of the Company and its subsidiaries, accounts receivable and VAT account of the Company and its subsidiaries.

 

The project construction processes for our solar power projects may generate noise, wastewater, gaseous wastes and other wastes. We believe we are in compliance with present environmental protection requirements in all material respects and have all material environmental permits necessary to conduct our business. For more details, see “—B. Business Overview—Environmental Matters.”

 

ITEM 4A.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

ITEM 5.OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” or in other parts of this annual report on Form 20-F.

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A.       Operating Results

 

Overview

 

Prior to September 2017, we were a leading fully-integrated solar project developer and provider of energy-efficient products based in China. We provided high quality solar power products, including solar wafers, solar cells, solar modules and solar power projects, to a global network of suppliers and customers, which included leading global manufacturers of solar wafers, cells and modules and distributors, installers and end users of solar modules. We also provided processing services to our customers.

 

Starting from our inception, we were manufacturers of solar wafers, polysilicon and solar modules. Starting from 2012, we expanded our operations into the global energy efficient products and services business and downstream solar power projects in overseas markets. In September 2017, we completed a non-cash restructuring following which, among other things, substantially all of the assets and liabilities related to our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer, solar cell and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business were transferred into ReneSola Singapore Pte. Ltd. Upon the closing of this restructuring, all the issued shares of ReneSola Singapore Pte. Ltd were transferred to Mr. Xianshou Li, our previous chairman and previous chief executive officer. As a result, we have transformed into a solar project developer and operator, a pure downstream player with a robust pipeline of projects around the world.

 

2020 was an extraordinary year, from the COVID-19 global pandemic to the presidential election in the U.S. The past year brought uncertainty, anxiety, and distress to people across the globe. We saw how the challenges of dealing with the COVID-19 impacted our employees, our customers, and our communities. During these trying times, our primary focus remains on the safety and well-being of our employees, business partners and customers. We took decisive actions to protect our employees, while also sustaining the efficient operation of our business. We transitioned all our employees from sales offices in Europe and the U.S. to a remote work environment, with a few exceptions where physical presence is necessary for the operation of projects to support government efforts to control the pandemic. We are taking care of our employees as their health being is our top priorities.  Our management team has also implemented processes that facilitate frequent virtual interaction between individual employees and employee groups. Our cross functional task-force continues to monitor and recommend steps to help employees and our customers safely interact.  We do see the continuing lockdown affect our process and procedures resulting in delays in completion of our solar projects.

 

Despite this challenging environment, 2020 saw solid execution and operational excellence for ReneSola Power. We progressed in our mission to become a leading global solar project developer by focusing on high-quality and high return projects in our core markets, the three best solar markets in the world: Europe, the United States and China. We delivered strong results and ended the year in a solid financial position. As of December 31, 2020, we have completed an accumulated 828 MW of solar power projects and have successfully sold a total of 86.1MW of solar projects in the year. The sales included 15.0 MW of DG projects in Hungary, 11.0 MW of DG projects in Poland, 10.6 MW of community solar projects in the U.S., 7.0 MW in Canada, 15.4 MW in Romania,4.3 MW of rooftop projects in the U.K. and 22.8 MW in China. We were operating approximately 173 MW solar power projects as of December 31, 2020, including 149 MW in China, and recorded electricity generation revenue from these projects. As of December 31, 2020, our late-stage pipeline totaled 1 GW, and about 6 MW under construction.

 

For details of our project pipeline, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Solar Power Projects—Project Pipeline.”

 

Our net revenue from continuing operations increased from $96.9 million in 2018 to $119.1 million in 2019 and decreased to $ 73.5 million in 2020. We recorded an operating income of $6.8 million and a net income of $2.2 million in 2020, compared to an operating loss of $1.0 million and a net loss of $11.7 million in 2019 and an operating income of $15.5 million and a net income of $5.1 million in 2018. Net income attributed to ReneSola Power was $2.8 million in the full year 2020, compared to net loss of $8.8 million in 2019. Net income per ADS was $0.06 in 2020, compared to net loss per ADS of $0.22 in 2019. Non-GAAP net income attributed to ReneSola Power was $3.7 million in the full year 2020, compared to $14.1 million in 2019. Non-GAAP net income per ADS was $0.08 in 2020, compared to $0.35 in 2019. Additionally, in the fourth quarter of 2020, we sold 15.4 MW of operating assets in Romania and 4.3 MW in the U.K. for a combined price of more than $30 million and recognized the net proceeds as meaningful operating come. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Overview of Financial Results—Net Revenue”.

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Below are detailed information of 2020 Financial Highlights

 

   2020
($ millions)
   2019
($ millions)
   Y/Y
Change
 
Revenue  $73.5   $119.1    -38%
U.S. GAAP gross profit  $16.7   $34.2    -51%
U.S. GAAP operating income (loss)  $6.8   $(1.0)   +$7.8 
Non-GAAP operating income  $10.0   $26.4    -62%
Adjusted EBITDA  $16.4   $33.6    -51%
U.S. GAAP net income(loss) attributed to ReneSola Power  $2.8   $(8.8)   +$11.6 
Non-GAAP net income attributed to ReneSola Power  $3.7   $14.1    -74%

 

Revenue decreased 38% to $73.5 million from $119.1 million in 2019;

 

o$49.2 million from the Project Development business

 

o$23.5 million from the IPP business, primarily from the sale of electricity in China,

 

o$0.8 million from operations and maintenance

 

Gross margin was 22.7%, compared to 28.7% in 2019;

 

Net income attributed to ReneSola Power was $2.8 million, compared to net loss of $8.8 million in 2019;

 

Non-GAAP net income attributed to ReneSola Power was $3.7 million, down from $14.1 million in 2019;

 

Sold 15.0 MW of DG projects in Hungary and 11.0 MW of projects in Poland;

 

Sold 10.6 MW community solar projects in U.S. and 7.0 MW FiT projects in Canada;

 

Sold 15.4 MW ground-mounted projects in Romania and 4.3 MW of rooftop projects in the U.K.;

 

Our late-stage solar power project pipeline stood at approximately 1.0 GW, as of December 31, 2020.

 

Major Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

 

Our future growth is driven by among others, industry demand for solar power, our ability to win market share from our competitors and our ability to develop and operate our solar projects. Significant factors that affect the financial performance and results of operations of our solar power projects are:

 

industry demand;

 

product pricing;

 

availability and prices of solar modules and other components;

 

government subsidies and incentives;

 

solar power project development;

 

operation of solar power project and generation of electricity; and

 

seasonality variations.

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Industry Demand

 

Our revenue growth largely depends on market demand for solar power projects. Demand for solar power projects is influenced by macroeconomic factors such as government regulations and support of the solar power industry, the global economic situation, the supply and prices of other energy products, such as oil, coal and natural gas, as well as government regulations and policies on the electric utility industry. Additionally, public sentiment for green energy is also strong in our operating markets of Europe, USA and China. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.”

 

Product Pricing

 

The prices for our solar power projects are affected by a variety of factors, including costs of solar modules and other components which we need to develop our solar power projects, supply and demand conditions globally, the quality of our products, our pricing strategy, and the terms of our customer contracts. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.”

 

Availability and Prices of Solar Modules and other Components

 

We use solar modules to develop our solar power projects. The market price of solar modules may fluctuate as a result of economic conditions and the relative supply and demand for solar modules.

 

We mitigate the risk by sourcing solar modules from various sources and by entering primarily into short term contracts and spot purchases in China and internationally. Our short-term and spot purchase contracts and orders generally reflect the prevailing market prices.

 

Government Subsidies and Incentives

 

We believe that growth of the solar industry depends largely on the availability and scale of government subsidies and economic incentives. Today, the cost of solar power substantially exceeds the cost of electricity generated from conventional fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. As a result, national and local governmental bodies in many countries have provided subsidies and economic incentives in the form of FITs, rebates, tax credits and other incentives to end-users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar power products to promote the use of solar energy and to reduce dependence on other forms of energy. These government subsidies and economic incentives, in the form of capital cost rebates, FITs, tax credits, net metering and other incentives to end users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of solar power products, have been reducing.

 

The demand for our solar power projects in our current, targeted and potential markets can be affected by the availability of such government subsidies and economic incentives. A significant reduction in the scope or discontinuation of government subsidies and incentive programs, especially those in our target markets, could cause demand for our solar power products and their prices to decline. The decline of the prices of modules may otherwise benefit our downstream solar power projects by reducing the construction costs and may in turn alleviate the negative impact. Nevertheless, significant reduction in the scope or discontinuation of government subsidies and incentive programs may still have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

Solar Power Project Development

 

In 2020, 2019 and 2018, we recognized $49.2 million, $90.1 million and $48.8 million of net revenue from continuing operations from the sales of our solar power projects, representing approximately 66.8.1%, 75.6% and 50.3% of our total net revenue from continuing operations. Our solar power project development activities have expanded over the past several years through a combination of organic growth and acquisition of project development rights. We develop our solar power projects with a view to selling them. Our ability to identify and engage credit-worthy purchasers timely and to negotiate favorable selling price and payment terms directly affects our profitability. If we are unable to identify and appropriate purchasers in the short term, we may also determine to own and operate certain projects from time to time and earn revenue by generating and selling electricity to the grid companies. We expect that our revenues from the sale of solar power projects and its importance to our overall business will continue to increase in the following years.

 

Solar power projects developments involve numerous risks and uncertainties. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We face uncertainties in connection with the implementation of our business strategy to transform our business focus from wafer and module manufacturing to global energy efficient products and services and downstream solar power projects.”

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Operation of Solar Power Project and Generation of Electricity

 

Our current business includes operation of our IPP portfolios. Revenues from the IPP business may be affected by the demand of our electricity, our ability to generate electricity, electricity sales price and operating costs. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business.”

 

Seasonality Variations

 

Changes in climate, geography, weather patterns, and other phenomena in the regions where we operate may significantly affect our business. For example, solar power projects depend on the amount and intensity of sunlight, which is affected by weather and climate conditions. As a result, our electricity generation and amount of electricity sold and therefore the revenue generated from our IPP business tend to be higher during periods or seasons when there is more irradiation. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Seasonal variations may influence our results of operations.”

 

Growth Strategies

 

The global solar power project development business is large and yet continues to grow. Industry market research estimates that by 2040, the share of renewables in the energy market will increase to around 30% and globally will become the single largest source of power generation. Europe continues to lead the way in terms of penetration of renewables. Renewable energy is expected to account for more than 50% of the European energy market by 2040. Europe, the U.S. and China are expected to be the three key markets driving the growth of renewables in the next several years due to favorable regulatory policies and incentives. In particular:

 

• The European Commission unveiled the “European Green Deal”, a set of policy initiatives intended to make Europe carbon neutral by 2050. This includes a proposal to toughen the EU’s 2030 greenhouse gas emission reductions target. They intend to reduce GHG to 50% of 1990 levels, a more aggressive target than the former 55% target.

 

• In the U.S., the Biden administration intends to make the U.S. a 100% clean energy economy with net-zero emissions by 2050, and intends to decarbonize the U.S. power sector by 2035 by adopting renewable energy sources and technologies that can be deployed at scale and compete with fossil fuels on cost.

 

• In China, the Central Government initiated the policy to reduce the country’s carbon dioxide emissions by at least 65 percent from 2005 levels by 2030 and to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.

 

With our focus on Europe, the U.S., and China, we believe we are strategically positioned for growth. In Europe, we have major development activities across Poland, Hungary, Spain, France, Germany, and the U.K. In the U.S., our late-stage projects include community solar projects in Minnesota, Maine, Pennsylvania, and New York. Additionally, we have projects under development in Utah, Florida, Maine, and California, and we operate utility projects in North Carolina. In China, our key geographic focus will be in the Yangtze River Delta area, which has attractive electricity tariffs and is one of the major metropolitan areas designated to play a pivotal role in the country’s future economic growth. We intend to expand our IPP assets by building 100 MW of projects in 2021. Our Project Development business benefits from an intense focus on small-scale projects in diverse jurisdictions with a high PPA/FiT price that generates attractive returns. As of December 31, 2020, our late-stage pipeline was 1.0 GW, up from 732 MW in the third quarter of 2020. We continue to focus on profitable markets, including the U.S. and Europe, where we see tremendous growth opportunities with high-quality projects. Importantly, we intend to add incremental project pipeline in our core markets to reach 2GW by the end of 2021. We are confident that we can achieve this, because our teams around the world are dedicated, skilled, and experienced and are supported by the foundation of our strong balance sheet.

 

Pipeline Target  Capacity (MW) 
Hungary   100 
Poland   400 
Spain   200 
France   200 
Germany and Italy   200 
U.K.   200 
USA   500 
China   200 
Total   2000 

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Overview of Financial Results

 

Net Revenue

 

Historically, we derived revenue primarily from sales of solar wafers and solar modules. We began to sell solar power projects and recognize revenue from sale of solar power projects in a separate business segment since 2015. After the completion of our business restructuring in September 2017, we have transformed into a solar project developer and operator, with our revenues mainly generated from our solar power projects. Set forth below is the breakdown of our net revenue by segment in absolute amount and as a percentage of total net revenue for the periods indicated.

 

Prior to the disposal of discontinued business on September 27, 2017, which have been presented as discontinued operations for all the periods presented herein, the Company operated and managed three principal reportable segments, Wafer, Cell and module, and Solar power projects. The Wafer segment involves the manufacture and sales of monocrystalline and multicrystalline solar wafers and processing services. The Cell and module segment involves manufacture and sale of PV cells and modules, and service revenue from tolling arrangements. The solar power projects segment is a newly formed segment in 2015 which involves solar power project development, EPC services and electricity generation revenue. Ancillary revenues and expenses and other unallocated costs and expenses are recorded in other.

 

Pursuant to the disposal of the manufacturing business and LED distribution business on September 27, 2017 presented in discontinued operations for all the periods presented herein, the Company further separated the solar power project segment into three reportable segments, including solar power project development, EPC services and electricity generation revenue. Ancillary revenues and expenses and other unallocated costs and expenses are recorded in other.

 

On January 1, 2018, we adopted new revenue guidance ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC Topic 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting method under ASC Topic 605.

 

   Year ended December 31, 2018 
   Solar power project
development
  

Electricity

generation

revenue

  

EPC

services

   Other   Total 
Net revenue  $48,784,766   $29,257,928   $18,544,164   $319,477   $96,906,335 
Gross profit  $7,052,170   $17,673,474   $3,329,402   $14,701   $28,069,747 
                          
   Year ended December 31, 2019 
   Solar power project
development
  

Electricity

generation

revenue

  

EPC

services

   Other   Total 
Net revenue  $90,096,551   $28,712,942   $69,751   $237,780   $119,117,024 
Gross profit/(loss)  $17,571,303   $16,763,190   $(178,414)  $69,969   $34,226,048 

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   Year ended December 31, 2020 
   Solar power project
development
  

Electricity

generation

revenue

  

EPC

services

   Other   Total 
Net revenue  $49,160,215   $23,547,162   $-   $795,506   $73,502,883 
Gross profit/(loss)  $4,374,238   $11,668,935   $-   $642,609   $16,685,782 

 

Geographical Distribution

 

In September 2017, we completed a disposition of our manufacturing businesses, including polysilicon, solar wafer, solar cell and solar module manufacturing, as well as the LED distribution business.

 

After the business restructuring, we have transformed into a solar project developer and operator, a pure downstream player with a robust pipeline of projects around the world.

 

The following table summarizes the Company’s revenues generated by the geographic location of customers:

 

   Years ended December 31, 
   2018   2019   2020 
China  $45,395,811   $24,470,827   $16,557,196 
United States   15,445,744    9,277,514    4,388,241 
Canada   -    -    15,557,800 
Romania   1,824,411    3,193,215    5,709,713 
England   31,169,458    3,853,687    655,102 
Turkey   2,129,085    -    - 
France   941,826    730,962    152,548 
Poland   -    59,884,835    10,008,838 
Hungary   -    17,705,984    20,473,445 
Total  $96,906,335   $119,117,024   $73,502,883 

 

We expect the revenue from solar power project continue to increase generally in parallel with our business growth. However, the COVID-19 outbreak has brought uncertainties and interruptions to the global economy which are beyond our control. Our financial performance for the first quarter had been adversely affected. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We face risks related to health epidemics and other outbreaks.”

 

Cost of Revenue

 

Our cost of revenue for continuing operations consists of costs for:

 

development costs (including interconnection fees and permitting costs) of solar power projects;

 

acquisition costs of solar power projects, if applicable;

 

project management costs;

 

EPC costs (consisting of costs of the components of solar power projects other than solar modules, such as inverters, electrical and mounting hardware, trackers, grid interconnection equipment, wiring and other devices);

 

interest costs capitalized for solar power projects during construction period; and

 

site-specific costs

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Gross Margin

 

Our gross margin is affected by changes in our net revenue and cost of revenue. Gross margin from continuing operations is affected by 1) the gross margin of each individual solar power project we sell, which is determined by our ability to negotiate the sales price and our ability to effectively control the project acquisition and development costs, 2) the gross margin of each individual solar power project we operate, which is determined by revenues from the sale of electricity generated from our operated solar power projects and our ability to effectively control the operation costs, and 3) the gross margin of each individual EPC services we provide, which is determined by our ability to negotiate the sales price and our ability to effectively control the engineering, procurement and construction costs.

 

Our gross margin slightly decreased from 29.0% in 2018 to 28.7% in 2019. Our gross margin decreased from 28.7% in 2019 to 22.7% in 2020, primarily due to the decrease of revenue from electricity generation revenue for the disposal of property, plant and equipment in China, which has a relatively higher gross margin comparing to other segments.

 

Operating Expenses

 

Our operating expenses primarily include sales and marketing expenses, general and administrative expenses and gains or losses on disposal of property, plant and equipment and project assets.

 

Sales and Marketing Expenses

 

Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of salaries, bonuses and pensions for our sales personnel, commission paid to our sales agents, outbound freight, share-based compensation expenses and benefits, travel and other sales and marketing expenses.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries, bonuses and benefits for our administrative and management personnel, consulting and professional service fees, bad debt provision, and travel and related costs incurred by our administrative and management personnel.

 

Other Operating Income and Expenses

 

Other operating income (expenses) primarily consists of discount charges of long-term receivables, compensation income and expenses, cancellation loss of project assets and disposal gain or loss of projects assets and property, plant and equipment.

 

Non-operating Income and Expenses

 

Our non-operating income and expenses consist primarily of interest income, interest expenses, foreign currency exchange gains or losses, gains on the repurchase of convertible notes, gains or losses on derivatives, and other losses.

 

Our interest income represents interest on our cash balances and the recognition of the discounted interest income on the feed-in tariff(s) (FIT) for the electricity sold. Our interest expenses relate primarily to our short-term and long-term borrowings from banks and other financing parties, less capitalized interest expenses to the extent they relate to our capital expenditures.

 

Our foreign currency exchange gain or loss results from our net exchange gains and losses on our monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies during the relevant period. Our functional currency is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency for our subsidiaries in the PRC is Reminbi (“RMB”). The functional currency of our overseas subsidiaries normally is the local currency of the place where the subsidiary is domiciled. Foreign currency transactions have been translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of the transaction. Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated into our functional currency at exchange rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. Assets and liabilities have been translated into our reporting currency using exchange rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Income statement items have been translated into our reporting currency using the weighted average exchange rate for the relevant periods. Translation adjustments have been reported as comprehensive income.

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Taxation

 

Under the current laws of the British Virgin Islands, we are not subject to any income or capital gains tax. Additionally, dividend payments made by us are not subject to any withholding tax in the British Virgin Islands.

 

PRC enterprise income tax is calculated primarily on the basis of taxable income determined under PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law. In March 2007, the National People’s Congress of China enacted a new Enterprise Income Tax Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and amended on December 29, 2018. In December 2007, the State Council of China promulgated the Implementing Regulation of the new Enterprise Income Tax Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and amended on April 23, 2019. The Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a unified enterprise income tax rate of 25% on all domestic enterprises and foreign-invested enterprises unless they qualify under certain limited exceptions.

 

Under the Provisional Regulation of China on Value Added Tax and its implementing rules, all entities and individuals engaged in the sale of goods, the provision of processing, repairs and replacement services, and the importation of goods into China are generally required to pay VAT at a rate of 17% of the gross sales proceeds received, less any deductible VAT already paid or borne by the taxpayer. Effective from May 1, 2018, the VAT rate on goods sales is adjusted to 16%. Effective from April 1, 2019, the VAT rate on goods sales is adjusted to 13%.

 

If it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized, we will provide for valuation allowances based on available evidence. As of December 31, 2020, the subsidiaries of the Company in PRC had net operating loss carry forwards of $8,337,247, of which $605, $16,381, $1,948, $6,483,968 and $1,834,345 will expire in 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024 and 2025 respectively.

 

We consider positive and negative evidence to determine whether some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. This assessment considers, among other matters, the nature, frequency and severity of recent losses, forecasts of future profitability, the duration of statutory carry forward periods, our experience with tax attributes in China expiring unused and tax planning alternatives. We have considered the following possible sources of taxable income when assessing the realization of deferred tax assets:

 

tax planning strategies;

 

future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences; and

 

further taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carry forwards.

 

The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible for tax purposes. As a result, we recognized a valuation allowance against tax loss carry forwards for continuing operations of $11.5 million and $11.0 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively.

 

In 2020, we had overseas operations in the jurisdiction of the United States, Canada, BVI, Republic of Romania, the United Kingdom, Poland, Hungary, Spain, France. The corporate income tax rates in these jurisdictions range from 0% to 28%.

 

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

 

To supplement our consolidated financial statements, which are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, we use EBITDA, EBITDA margin, adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA margin, and non-GAAP net income/(loss) attributed to the Company, each a non-GAAP financial measures as described below, to understand and evaluate our core operating performance. These non-GAAP financial measures, which may differ from similarly titled measures used by other companies, are presented to enhance investors’ overall understanding of our financial performance and should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, the financial information prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

EBITDA is defined as net income or loss before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. EBITDA margin is defined as EBITDA as a percentage of revenues. We believe that EBITDA and EBITDA margin provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results. Adjusted EBITDA represents EBITDA plus discount of electricity subsidy in China, plus share-based compensation, plus bad debt provision, plus impairment of long-lived assets, plus one-time penalty of postponed payables, plus one-time OCI settlement, plus loss/(gain) on disposal of assets, plus foreign exchange loss/(gain).

80

Non-GAAP net income/(loss) attributable to the Company represents GAAP net income/(loss) attributed to ReneSola Power plus discount of electricity subsidy in China, plus share-based compensation, plus bad debt provision, plus impairment of long-lived assets, plus one-time penalty of postponed payables, plus one-time OCI settlement, plus loss/(gain) on disposal of assets, plus foreign exchange loss/(gain).

 

These non-GAAP financial measures eliminate the impact of items that we do not consider indicative of the performance of our business. While we believe that these non-GAAP financial measures are useful in evaluating our business, this information should be considered as supplemental in nature and is not meant as a substitute for the related financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

 

The tables below present reconciliations of EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA and non-GAAP net income/(loss) attributable to the Company, for the periods indicated.

 

   Years ended December 31, 
   2019   2020 
   (In thousands) 
Net Income  $(11,680)  $2,156 
Add: Income tax expenses   1,105    163 
Add: Interest expenses, net off interest income   8,337    5,230 
Add: Depreciation & Amortization   7,796    7,341 
EBITDA   5,558    14,890 
Add: Discount of electricity subsidy in china   2,860    971 
Add: Share based compensation   349    369 
Add: Bad debt provision of receivables   6,982    7,021 
Add: Impairment of long-lived assets   6,880    1,432 
Add: Penalty of postponed property, plant and equipment payable   281    - 
Add: Loss on OCI settlement   -    7,500 
Add: Cancellation of project assets   6,435    1,461 
Add: Loss on disposal of  property, plant and equipment   3,908    768 
Add: Foreign exchange  loss/(gain)   1,274    (769)
Less: Gains on disposal of  property, plant and equipment   (302)   (16,278)
Less: Interest income of discounted electricity subsidy in china   (589)   (954)
Adjusted  EBITDA  $33,636   $16,411 

 

   Years ended December 31, 
   2019   2020 
   (In thousands) 
Reconciliation of operating income        
GAAP operating income  $(964)  $6,780 
Add: Discount of electricity subsidy in china   2,860    971 
Add: Share based compensation   349    369 
Add: Bad debt provision of receivables   6,982    7,021 
Add: Impairment of long-lived assets   6,880    1,432 
Add: Penalty payables   281    - 
Add: Loss on OCI settlement   -    7,500 
Add: Cancellation of project assets   6,435    1,461 
Add: Loss on disposal of  property, plant and equipment   3,908    768 
Less: Gains on disposal of  property, plant and equipment   (302)   (16,278)
Non-GAAP operating income  $26,429   $10,024 

81

   Years ended December 31, 
   2019   2020 
   (In thousands) 
Reconciliation of net income attributed to ReneSola Ltd        
GAAP net income attributable to ReneSola Ltd  $(8,831)  $2,779 
Add: Subsidy discount   1,712    581 
Add: Share based compensation   349    369 
Add: Allowance of doubtful accounts   6,982    6,895 
Add: Impairment of long-lived assets   4,119    1,223 
Add: Penalty payables   281    - 
Add: Loss on OCI settlement   -    7,500 
Add: Cancellation of project assets   6,435    1,461 
Add: Loss on disposal of property, plant and equipment   2,340    460 
Add: Foreign exchange loss/(gain)   1,274    (769)
Less: Gain on disposal of property, plant and equipment   (181)   (16,179)
Less: Interest income on subsidy discount   (353)   (571)
Non-GAAP income attributed to ReneSola Ltd  $14,127   $3,749 

 

Critical Accounting Estimates

 

We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires us to make judgments, estimates and assumptions. We continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information, our own historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Since the use of estimates is an integral component of the financial reporting process, actual results could differ from those estimates. Information about critical estimates that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the consolidated financial statements included the following:

 

Revenue recognition

 

Solar power project development

 

a) Sale of project assets constructed by a third-party EPC contractor

 

The Company recognizes revenue for sales of project assets constructed by a third-party engineering, procurement and construction (“EPC”) contractor over time as the Company’s performance creates an energy generation asset that is owned by the customer as it is being constructed and the customer can direct all activities related to the work in progress. Furthermore, the sale of a project asset when combined with EPC services represents a single performance obligation for the development and construction of a single generation asset. The Company recognizes revenue overtime for construction contracts which recognize revenue and gross profit as work is performed based on the relationship between actual costs incurred compared to the total estimated costs of the contract. Under this business model, the EPC services are provided by a third-party service provider. In accordance with the terms and conditions of the EPC contract, the Company has the ability to direct a third party to ensure that the EPC services to the customer are performed, therefore the Company acts as the principal in this arrangement and both the revenue and cost amounts paid to the EPC contractor are recognized on a gross basis.

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b) Sale of project assets constructed by the Company’s own EPC team

 

Under this business model, the Company sells power projects after they have been completed or are near completion. The Company conducts the construction of the power plant and completes or nearly complete the project before it identifies a customer. When a customer is identified, the Company enters into two agreements through signing: Sale and Purchase Agreement (“SPA”) and Operations and Maintenance (“O&M”) Services Contract, which are signed on the same date. Such arrangements consist of two performance obligations: sale of solar project and O&M services.

 

For sale of a solar project, the Company recognizes revenue at a point in time once control of project company is transferred to customer as the Company has no remaining performance obligation once the control is transferred upon closing of the sale. For O&M services, the Company recognizes revenue over time, ratably over the service period, as this performance enhances an energy generation asset controlled by the customer.

 

For sales agreements that have energy generation performance guarantees covering a certain timeframe or the availability guarantee in the O&M contract, if there is an underperformance event, the Company may incur liquidated damages as a percentage of the EPC contract price or as a percentage of O&M fees. Such performance guarantees represent a form of variable consideration and are estimated at contract inception at their most likely amount and updated at the end of each reporting period as additional performance data becomes available and only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of any incremental revenue will not occur.

 

c) Sale of project asset rights

 

The Company sells the project rights to customers through the disposal of project companies holding the relevant permits. For these transactions, the project companies could either own the land or lease the land under the lease term that could cover the entire power plant’s life. In these transactions, the Company is also responsible for locating the electricity end subscribers on the customer’s behalf for certain percentage of the entire contact consideration. Such arrangements consist of two performance obligations: sale of project rights and sourcing of end subscribers.

 

The Company recognizes revenue for sale of project rights at a point in time once control of project rights is transferred to customer as the Company has no further obligations related to the project rights. The Company recognizes revenue for sourcing of end subscribers over time as the Company has an ongoing obligation during a certain period to source end subscribers. A portion of the sales price consideration is variable on the percentage of end subscribers sourced for the project. The Company estimates the amount that most likely overcomes the constraint on variable consideration to include in the transaction price based on the historical subscription rates achieved.

 

EPC Services

 

The Company provides EPC services under the EPC contracts, under which the Company provides one distinct performance obligation – design and build the power plant on customer’s site per customer’s request.

 

The Company recognizes revenue for EPC services over time as the Company’s performance creates or enhances an energy generation asset controlled by the customer. In recognizing revenue overtime, the Company follows the costs incurred method and uses the actual costs incurred relative to the total estimated costs (including module costs) in order to determine the progress towards completion and calculate the corresponding amount of revenue and profit to recognize. Costs incurred include direct materials, solar modules, labor, subcontractor costs, and those indirect costs related to contract performance, such as indirect labor and supplies.

 

The overtime revenue recognition requires the Company to make estimates of net contract revenues and costs to complete the projects. In making such estimates, significant judgment is required to evaluate assumptions related to the amount of net contract revenues, including the impact of any performance incentives, liquidated damages, and other payments to customers. Significant judgment is also required to evaluate assumptions related to the costs to complete the projects, including materials, labor, contingencies, and other system costs.

 

Although the EPC contract usually clearly states a fixed unit price and the estimated total contract amount, the total contract amount is subject to variable consideration due to the difference between actual grid-connection capacity and estimated grid-connection capacity. The Company usually makes a reasonable estimation of grid-connection capacity, which represents a form of variable consideration. The variable consideration is estimated at the contact inception at the best estimate based on relevant experience and historical data and updated at the end of each reporting period as additional performance data becomes available and only to the extent that it is probably that a significant reversal of any revenue will not occur.

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If estimated total costs on any contract are greater than the net contract revenues, the Company recognizes the entire estimated loss in the period the loss becomes known. The cumulative effect of the revisions to estimates related to net contract revenues and costs to complete cont